Professor Diane Long Hoeveler

Coughlin 247

Office Phone:   288-3466

Office hours:   11:30-1 Mondays and Wednesdays and by appt.


Class meets Mondays and Wednesdays 2:25-3:40 in Cudahy, 143


The premise of this course is that the Gothic genre, so marginalized as a legitimate literary form in the twentieth century, actually influenced much of the literature that we now read as traditionally “romantic.”   In order to examine that premise, we will look at a number of forms of Gothicism that influenced canonical romantic poetry and drama.   Specifically, we will begin with “Ballad Gothicism” and read a number of gothic ballads alongside some of the poems in Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads (particularly “The Thorn,” “Three Graves,” and Coleridge's “Ancient Mariner,” and next we will move to “Inquisitional Gothicism,” and read Matthew Lewis's The Monk and Ann Radcliffe's The Italian .   To further examine the development of the novel we will place Eliza Parsons's Castle of Wolfenbach in juxtaposition with Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey .   Other topics and texts to be read are Keats's “Eve of St. Agnes” and Coleridge's “Christabel” and faux-medievalism; Byron's Manfred and melodramatic Gothicism; and finally Percy Shelley's Cenci and Mary Shelley's Mathilda as familial gothic.   An oral report to the class, a conference length paper, and an extended research paper (all connected to each other in subject) are the requirements for the course.


Matthew Lewis, The Monk (Oxford U)

Ann Radcliffe, The Italian (Oxford U)

Eliza Parsons, The Castle of Wolfenbach (Valancourt)

Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey (Norton)

Mary Shelley, Matilda (Penguin)

Required Course packet of supplementary readings [CP]

Additional information available on the course D2L site


In addition to introducing students to a variety of gothic and romantic-era texts, the major goal of this course is to increase your professionalism as a literary critic and scholar, and to that end you will be given practice in mastering a number of professional academic genres (i.e., the book review, the scholarly article, the conference paper, etc.).  Requirements include an avid interest in sharing your ideas and insights with the class, a conference-length paper (8-9 pages), a   longer research paper (15 pages), a book review (5 pages), and one oral report on secondary readings and research presented to class.


Abrams, Meyer H.   Natural Supernaturalism .  [PN/603/.A3/1973]

Ashfield, Andrew, ed. Romantic Women Poets: 1770-1838 . [PR/1177/.W65/1995]

Bloom, Harold.   The Visionary Company .  [PR/590/.B39/1971]

--------.   Romanticism and Consciousness .  [PR/590/.B387]

Butler, Marilyn.   Romantics, Rebels and Reactionaries .  [PR/447/.B8/1982]

Cooke, Michael.   The Romantic Will .  [PR590.C6/1976]

Cox, Jeffrey.   In the Shadows of Romance.   [PN/1898/.E85/C68]

Cox, Jeffrey, ed.   Seven Gothic Dramas, 1789-1825.   [PR/635/.H67/S48]

Cox, Philip.   Gender, Genre, and the Romantic Poets . [PR/590/.C64/1996]

Ellison, Julie.   Delicate Subjects .  [PR/457/.E5/1990]

Frye, Northrop.   A Study of English Romanticism .  [PR/447/.F7]

Gaull, Marilyn.   English Romanticism .  [PR/590/.G38/1988]

Hagstrum, Jean.   The Romantic Body .  [PR/590/.H28/1985]

Hoeveler, Diane.   Gothic Feminism . [PR/830/T3/H64/1998]

---------.   Romantic Androgyny .  [PR/585.A49/H6/1990]

Johnston, Kenneth, ed.   Romantic Revolutions .  [PR/4571.R644/1990]

Jordan, Frank, ed.   English Romantic Poets , 1985 ed. [PR/590/.E5]

McGann, Jerome.   Romantic Ideology .  [PR/590/.M34/1983]

Manning, Peter.   Reading Romantics .  [PR1590/.M23/1990]

Mellor, Anne.   Romanticism and Gender .  [PR468/.F46/M45/1993]

--------, ed. Romanticism and Feminism .  [PR/469.F44/R66/1988]

Nicoll, Allardyce.   A History of English Drama, 1660-1900 .   [PR/625/.N52/1952/v.4]

Peckham, Morse.   The Triumph of Romanticism .  [PN/6031.P4]

Rajan, Tilottama.   Dark Interpreter .  [PR/5901.R27/1980]

------------.   The Supplement of Reading . [PR/4571.R34/1990]

Reed, Arden, ed.   Romanticism and Language .  [PR/468.R65/R65/1984]

Ross, Marlon.   The Contours of Masculine Desire .  [PN/603.R67]

Ruoff, Gene, ed.   The Romantics and Us .  [PR/457/.R647/1990]

Simpson, David.   Subject to History: Ideology, Class, Gender . [PR/7/.S83]

Siskin, Clifford.   The Historicity of Romantic Discourse .  [PR/468.H57/557/1988]

Stillinger, Jack.   The Hoodwinking of Madeline and Other Essays .  [PR/4837/.S64/1971]

Swingle, L. J.   The Obstinate Questionings of English Romanticism .  [PR/457/.S9/1987]

Wasserman, Earl.   The Subtler Language .  [PR503/.W35/1959]

Weiskel, Thomas.   The Romantic Sublime .  [BH/301/.S7/.W44]



January 17:   Introduction to the course:   the interaction between gothic and romantic as interpretive categories in the study of early nineteenth-century British literature

Jan 22: BALLAD GOTHICISM: Burger, “Lenore,” anon., “Fair Margaret and Sweet William,” Scott, “William and Helen,” Lewis, “Alonzo the Brave and Fair Imogine”; Lewis, “The Dying Bride” [all in CP]

Jan 24: Southey, “Donica,” “The Grim White Woman,” Coleridge, “Christabel” [all in CP]

Jan 29: Lewis, “The Bleeding Nun,” Coleridge and Bannerman's versions of “The Dark Ladie,” Scott, “The Wild Huntsman,” Burger, “The Wild Hunter,” Burger, “Eleanore,” Blake, “Eleanor”   [CP]

Jan 31:   Keats, “Eve of St. Agnes,” Scott, “Eve of St. John ”; Shelley, “Ballad,” miscellaneous ballads [CP]

Feb 5: Keats, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci,” “ Lamia ,” and Tieck, “Wake Not the Dead” [CP]

Feb 7:   Coleridge, “The Ancient Mariner” [CP]

Feb 12:   Wordsworth and Coleridge, “Three Graves ”; Wordsworth, “The Mad Mother,” “The Idiot Boy”; “The Thorn”; Burger's “Lass of Fair Wone” [CP]

Feb 14:   INQUISITIONAL GOTHIC:   The Monk , vol. 1

Feb 19:   The Monk , vol. 2

Feb 21:   The Monk , vol. 3

Feb 26:   The Italian , vol. 1

Feb 28: The Italian , vol. 2

March 5: The Italian , vol. 3

March 7: Lewis, “The Isle of Devils”

[spring break]

March 19: Castle of Wolfenbach , I and 2

March 21:   Northanger Abbey ; book reviews due

March 26:   Northanger Abbey to conclusion

March 28: MELODRAMATIC GOTHICISM: Byron, “Manfred” [CP]

April 2:    Byron, “Oscar of Alva,” oral report on Byron

April 4:   FAMILIAL GOTHICISM:   Shelley, The Cenci

April 11: Cenci

April 16:   Shelley, Matilda, cc. 1-6

April 18:   Matilda , cc. 7-12

April 23:   oral reports

April 30: oral reports continued

May 2: conference papers due; oral reports continued

May 10: research papers due in my office by noon



"I always try to rationalize my nightmares."


~Graham Greene


Professor Diane Long Hoeveler

Coughlin 247

Office Phone:   288-3466

Office hours:   11:30-1 Mondays and Wednesdays and by appt.


Office Hours: 12:30-2:00 T/TH and by appointment.


Professor Diane Long Hoeveler

Coughlin 247

Office Phone:   288-3466

Office hours:   11:30-1 Mondays and Wednesdays and by appt.


Office Hours:  T/TH  and by appointment

Course meets T/TH  in


Ann Radcliffe, A Sicilian Romance ( Oxford )

Ann Radcliffe, Mysteries of the Forest

Percy Shelley, St. Irvyne and Zastrozzi (reading packet)

Monk Lewis, The Monk ( Oxford )

Monk Lewis, "The Castle Spectre"

Joanna Baillie, "Orra"

James Boaden, "The Italian Monk"

Charlotte Dacre, Zofloya, or the Moor (Broadview)

Mary Shelley, Frankenstein ( Oxford )

James Peake, "Presumption"

Supplementary packet of readings--syllabus, short essay questions, and Shelley's two out-of-print novels--available for purchase at the MU Bookstore.

RESERVE MATERIAL:  A collection of critical essays and articles (the items in the brackets on our daily schedule) is stored under English 230 at the reserve desk in the library (second floor).  Should you want a copy of any of these supplementary materials, you can check the article out and photocopy it in the library.  Copyright regulations have made it impossible for me to provide you with copies of these materials.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:  A formal oral presentation read to class (20 minutes) worth 30% of final grade; a 15-20 research paper worth 50% of final grade; and two brief writing assignments (based on the questions in the reading packet) worth 10% each.  Class attendance and active participation is also expected.


August 27:  Introduction to course; lecture: what is the gothic?

August 29:  Otranto [read Williams, "The Nightmare of History"]

September 3: Otranto [read Hogle, "The Ghost of the Counterfeit in the Genesis of the Gothic"]

September 5: Monk [read Punter, "Romanticism and the Unconscious"]

September 10: Monk [read Williams, "Gothic Fiction's Family Romance"]

September 12: Monk [read Bernstein, "Form and Ideology in the Gothic"]

September 17: Italian [read Morris, "Gothic Subliminity"]

September 19: Italian [read Durant, "Radcliffe and the Conservative Gothic"]

September 24: Italian [read Wolff, "The Radcliffean Gothic Model"]

September 26: Vathek [read Todorv, "The Uncanny"]

October 1:  Maria [read Kahane, "Gothic Mirror"]

October 3:  Maria [read Myers, "Unfinished Business"]

October 8:  Zastrozzi [read Freud, "A Child is being beaten"]

October 10: St. Irvyne [read Brown, "A Philosophical View of the Gothic"]

October 15: Frankenstein [read Youngquist, "Frankenstein"]

October 17: Frankenstein [read Moretti, "Dialectic of Fear"]

October 22: Frankenstein [read Paulson, "The Gothic"]

October 24: Mathilda [read Rajan, "Melancholy and Political Economy"]

October 29: Mathilda [read Hoeveler, "On Mathilda"]

October 31: Melmoth, book 1 [read Napier, "Destabilization and Excess"]

November 5: Melmoth, book 2 [read Foucault excerpts]

November 7: Melmoth, book 3 [read Stott, "Structure of Melmoth"]

November 12: Melmoth, book 4

November 14: Zafloya, book 1 [read Kristeva, from Powers of Horror]

November 19: Zafloya, book 2 [read Hoeveler, "On Zafloya"]

November 21: Zafloya, book 3 [read Miles, "Avatars of Lewis"]

November 26: Confessions of a Justified Sinner

December 3:  Confessions of a Justified Sinner [read Redekop, "Beyond Closure"]

December 5:  Confessions of a Justified Sinner [read Sedgwick, "Murder Incorporated"]

December 13:  Your research paper is due at my office by noon .


--"the darker side" of life; a world of pain and destruction/ fear and anxiety which shadows the daylight world of love and ethereality

--gothic fiction consists of a set of analyzable displacements about what it means to be a human being and gendered;

--it strains at the limits of mortality/immortality;  morality/immorality;  reason/emotion; order/disorder; mind/body; masculine/feminine

--gothic fictions are structured as case histories of types of insanity

--we as readers are asked to adjudicate various diagnostic accounts

--pleasure/pain dichotomy: why do we enjoy reading these fictions?

--the fiction as essentially a regressive fantasy: we peer back over our own personal history because all psychotic states are simply perpetuations of landscapes that we have all inhabited at some stage in our early infancy (we all outgrow our "madness")

--accounts of cultural and psychic dislocation

--Barthes' enigmatic code: we identify with parts of the text whose primary function is to keep us peristing in our reading by focusing our minds on unanswered questions, upon a certain pattern of hiatus and expectuancy, unpon a continually postponed hope for a resolution of the uninterpretability of change

--fiction of fear arises at times of great social and economic upheaval;

gothic fiction introduces a prolonged contemplation of the objects in the individual's internal world at the same time there is a repeated vindication of the individual's ability to survive despite threat

--landscapes of childhood: narcissism; incest; violence and vampirism; androgyny and sexual anarchy; the oedipal triangulation; the family romance; projective identification (I am the Other) and splitting are the two dominant psychological defenses

--like other romantic texts, the gothic deals with interruptions in the maturation process; they are tales of recuperation or reparation; resistance to loss

--the gothic exposes the essential instability of the domination and submission patterns in the fantasy; creation of doubled characters; self-other relationships revealed when we realize that the hero never shares the stage with a heroine; if the text focuses on a heroine, then the male has to be a split figure: villain or weak "hero"

--in their quest for identity as masculine or feminine, all the characters appear to be enthralled to fragmentation or disintegration

Robt Hume distinguishes between two sub-genres of gothic:

1. novel of terror = Radcliffe (female)

2. novel of horror = Lewis, Monk (male)

conventional trappings = heroine, hero and villain, clouds, castles, mystery, inevitable travel sequence that transports the characters from everyday life, educates the reader about foreign lands, and casts a general aura of mystery about the proceedings

adult fairy-tale; immersion in "enchanted castle"; woman's body

assault on the castle gates, room = metaphorical rape

heroine leaves the known (childhood) to venture into unknown (adulthood); pauses in a sterile wasteland (pre-sexuality) and then moves through a never-never land (courtship, magic, illusion, dream) to arrive at full sexuality (adulthood and chaste marriage).

inherent ambiguity and ambivalence lies at the core of the genre's appeal

orphaned heroine searches for surrogate parents, only to find her parents by finding her self; her most sinister enemy is her own awakening sexuality; heroine's task is to destroy the mythic beast within, for the wages of passion are madness, disease, and death; virtues are repression and sublimination orphans are social outsiders; they seek social approval and kinship Foucault on kinship and alliance)

values of silence, rectitude, balance (mind of a man and heart of a woman); restrained emotions and strength of character; century's idealization of Virgin Mary

heroine plays role of aetherialized maiden, brave young detective, symbolic quester of her own and others' identities

theme of female powerlessness; motherhood was source of women's greatest power

"The posture of romantic victim concealed thwarted dreams of power"

Wolff, "The Racfliffean Gothic Model: A Form for Feminine Sexuality"

rpt. in The Female Gothic, ed. Juliann Fleenor

men subscribe to the "virgin-whore" syndrome because they have split their affectionate (and asexual) feelings from the passionate (and sexual) side;

they PROJECT their own feelings onto women they then label either "bad" or "good"; they also invariable set up a rival for the women

women mirror this syndrome in their invention of the "Devil/Priest" syndrome and their rivals usually take the form of a mother-figure

danger in the fiction is equated with an "inner space"--a secret room, etc, within the larger castle/body

Edith Birkhead:  "Mrs. Radcliffe's heroines resemble nothing more than a composite photograph in which all distinctive traits are merged into an expressionless 'type.'"

Their only business is to experience difficulties

heroine has to earn her right to preside over the gothic castle

the pairing of the hero and villain in 18th century gothic each embody a sort of authority that the heroine has to choose between; a violent taboo is usually attached to the villain (again, recourse to Foucault's explanation about the machinery of alliance and kinship in operation)

1950's: second Gothic revival; heroine now is allowed to marry the demon lover

"Power" is most prevalent word in these fictions

"The problem of love divided is now resolved in the direction of undiluted sexuality, and the reading and rereading of modern Gothics gives comforting reassurance both that sexuality is safe and appropriate for women and that the primitive quality of this passion need never be compromised or relinquished"

*******"Better to try all things and find all empty, than to try nothing and leave your life a blank"   --Charlotte Bronte

*******"There is a joy in fear" ---Joanna Baillie


Ellen Moers, "Traveling Heroinism: Gothic for Heroines" in her Literary Women (1976):

--gothic fiction is concerned with fear: "fantasy predominates over reality, the strange over the commonplace, and the supernatural over the natural

--gothic fiction intends to scare and to get at the body itself, to our physiological reactions to fear

--gothic arose what religious fears were on the wane, giving way to that vague paranoia of the modern spirit from which gothic mechanisms seem to have provided therapy

--the FG concerns a young woman who is simultaneously a persecuted victim and a courageous heroine

--the FG transforms the standard romantic is sue s of incest, infanticide, and patricide into a fantasy of the nursery

--Frankenstein, Wuthering Heights , and Goblin Market all concern a girl's childhood and the adult woman's tragic yearning to return to it; all seek a pre-adolescent love modeled after the sister-brother relationship; the cruelties in all works are justified as realistic attributes of the nursery world--and as frankly joyous memories of childhood eroticism

--FG is characterized by the compulsion to visualize the self; where woman is examined with a woman's eye

--the fear in FG suggests the haunted and self-hating self

--FG is characterized by traveling heroinism: traveling both outdoors and indoors: the fg novel became a feminine substitute for the picaresque, where heroines could enjoy all the adventures and alarms that masculine heroes had long experienced, far from home, in fiction

--the test in the fg allows the heroine to prove herself through courage and self-control in the face of physical dangers

--the fg heroine uses her sufferings as the source of her erotic fascination (Marquis de Sade and the sadistic impulse)

--property, decorum, taste in manners, social status, respectability are touchstones for the fg heroine

--the final gothic castle to be navigated by the fg heroine is the insane asylum



Horace Walpole, The Castle of Otranto (Broadview)

Horace Walpole, The Mysterious Mother (Broadview)

Robert Jephson, The Count of Narbonne (course packet)

Clara Reeve, The Old English Baron (College Publishing)

John Broster, Edmund, Orphan of the Castle (course packet)

Ann Radcliffe, The Italian (Oxford )

Monk Lewis, The Monk (Oxford )

James Boaden, The Italian Monk  (course packet)

James Boaden, Aurelio and Miranda (course packet)

Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (St. Martins-Bedford)

James Peake, Presumption, or the Fate of Frankenstein (course packet)

John Polidori, The Vampyre (course packet)

James Planche, The Vampyre or the Bride of the Isles (course packet)

Supplementary packet of readings [course packet]--syllabus, sample oral reports, miscellaneous bibliographies, and gothic dramas--available for purchase at the MU Bookstore.


Paula Backsheider.  Spectacular Politics.  [PR/698/.P65/B33]

Jeffrey Cox.  In the Shadows of Romance.  [PN/1898/.E85/C68]

Jeffrey Cox, ed. Seven Gothic Dramas [PR/635/.H67/S48/1992]

Bertrand Evans.  Gothic Drama from Walpole to Shelley. [PR/719/.G6/E93]

Daniel Watkins. A Materialist Critique of English Romantic Drama. [PR/716/.W37]

Alan Richardson . A Mental Theater. [PR/719/.V4/R53]

COURSE REQUIREMENTS:  An oral presentation delivered to class and worth 30% of final grade; a 15-20 research paper worth 50% of final grade; a book review (10%), and a conference length paper (8-10 pp) worth the final 10%.   Class attendance and active participation is also expected.


August 31:  Introduction to course; lecture: what is the gothic?

September 2: Walpole, Otranto, pp. 73-165

September 7:  Walpole , two prefaces (59-71) plus continued discussion of novel

September 9: Reeve, Old English Baron, 39-165

September 14: continue discussion of OEB

September 16:  Count of Narbonne

September 21:  Edmund

September 23:  Mysterious Mother, acts I and II

September 28:  Mysterious Mother, acts III - V

September 30: Radcliffe, The Italian, vol 1

October 5:  Italian, vol 2

October 7:  Italian, vol 3

October 12: Lewis, The Monk, vol 1

October 14: Lewis, The Monk, vol 2

October 19:  Lewis, The Monk, vol 3

October 21: midterm break; no class

October 26: Boaden, The Italian Monk

English 225:  syllabus, p. 3

October 28:  Boaden, Aurelio and Miranda

November 2:  Frankenstein

November 4:  Frankenstein

November 9:  Frankenstein

November 11:  Peake, Presumption

November 16:  Polidori, The Vampyr

November 18:  Planche, The Vampyr

November 23:  continue Planche

November 25: Thanksgiving

November 29:  Oral reports

December 2:  Oral reports

December 7:  Oral reports

December 9:  Oral reports

December 17:  your research project is due at my office by noon


"We live as we dream, alone." ~ Joseph Conrad


Professor Diane Long Hoeveler

Coughlin 247

Office Phone:   288-3466

Office hours:   11:30-1 Mondays and Wednesdays and by appt.



Mrs. Radcliffe, The Italian ( Oxford)

Monk Lewis, The Monk (Penguin)

 Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (Chicago)

Joseph Le Fanu, Best Ghost Stories (Dover )

Bram Stoker, Dracula ( Oxford ) and The Lair of the White Worm

Henry James, The Turn of the Screw

Kinko's package of readings


Two analytical/interpretive papers, each

5‑7 pages; a midterm exam; a final exam; each worth 25% of final grade

ATTENDANCE POLICY:  Be advised that after five absences your

final grade will be lowered one‑half grade.  After three more

absences your grade will be lowered another one‑grade.  You will

be dropped from the course after nine absences.

August 26:  Introduction to course: What is the Gothic?

August 28:  The Italian, pp. 5‑128

August 30:  The Italian, pp. 129‑258

September 4:  Italian, pp. 259‑416

September 6:  Italian conclusion

September 9:  summation; read Holland and Sherman , "Gothic

  Possibilities"  [in Kinko's]

September 11:  Blake, "Visions of the Daughters of Albion,"

  "Mental Traveller"  [in Kinko's]

September 13:  Coleridge, "Christabel" [in Kinko's]

September 16:  Byron, "Manfred" [in Kinko's]

September 18:  Keats, "La Belle Dame" and "Isabella"

   [in Kinko's]

September 20:  Keats, " Lamia ," "Eve of St. Agnes" [in Kinko's]

September 23:  summation; read Freud selections  [Kinko's]

September 25:  Hawthorne, "Rappacinni's Daughter" [Kinko's]

September 27:  James, "Jolly Corner" [Kinko's]

September 30:  Gilman, "Yellow Wallpaper" [VIDEO]

October 2:  Frankenstein, letters 1‑4; cc. 1‑4

October 4:  Frankenstein, cc. 5‑10

October 7:  Frankenstein, cc. 11‑17

October 9:  Frankenstein, cc. 18‑24;  PAPER #1 DUE IN CLASS

October 11: summation; read Poovey, "My Hideous Progeny"

    [in Kinko's] [FILM: "Bride of Frankenstein"]

October 14:  Review for MIDTERM EXAM

October 16:  MIDTERM

October 18:  midsemester holiday

October 21:  "Fall of the House of Usher" [in Kinko's]; read Foucault,

    History of Sexuality  [in Kinko's]

October 23:  "Goblin Market" [in Kinko's]

October 25:  Wuthering Heights , cc. 1‑9

October 28:  Wuthering Heights , cc. 17‑24

October 30:  Wuthering Heights , cc. 25‑end; summation; read

    Zaretsky, "Proletarianization" [in Kinko's]

November 1:  LeFanu, "Carmilla," pp. 274‑304

November 4:  LeFanu, "Carmilla," pp. 305‑339

November 6:  summation; read Veeder, "Carmilla and Repression"

   [in Kinko's]; [VIDEO: "Carmilla"]

November 8:  James, Turn of the Screw

November 11: James, Turn

November 13: Stoker, Lair,

November 15: Stoker, Lair,

November 27: Stoker, Dracula, cc. 1‑6; PAPER #2 DUE

November 29: Stoker, Dracula, cc. 7‑12

December 2:  Stoker, Dracula, cc. 13‑19

December 4: Stoker, Dracula, cc. 20‑end; read "Sexuality in Dracula"

  [in Kinko's]; "Dracula" video

December 6:  Review for FINAL EXAM

December 10:  FINAL EXAM SCHEDULED FOR 1:00‑3:00



English Department

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