II. Addressing the Charge (continued)
2. Part II of the Charge
Part II of the charge required the Task Force to examine data in multiple areas of University activity, such as recruitment, hiring, appointment of faculty, workload distribution, allocation of leadership responsibilities, compensation, and promotions. These areas were selected to cover the broadest base of faculty selection and activity so as to insure that faculty would be treated equitably, without disadvantage because of gender. Initially, the Subcommittee on Quantitative Data concluded that aspects of the charge involving the examination of salary, promotion, and tenure decisions could effectively be examined using statistical methods. However, other aspects of the charge dealing with recruitment, hiring, appointment of faculty, workload distribution, allocation of leadership responsibilities, and promotion could effectively be addressed through the creation of another Subcommittee that would interact with administrators responsible for those types of University decisions.26 The Subcommittee on Administrators, under the direction of Task Force member McDonald, addressed these aspects of the charge.
Quantitative Data Subcommittee.
The Quantitative Data Subcommittee, led by Task Force member Toumanoff, met three times during the fall semester of 1999. A memo by Dr. Toumanoff, dated January 17, 2000, summarized the procedures used by the Subcommittee.27 The Subcommittee decided to use "several overlapping sources of data and several overlapping methods of examination."28 Dr. Toumanoff reviewed relevant literature concerning statistical analysis and prepared a bibliography of pertinent work for the Subcommittee.29 The Subcommittee analyzed data concerning salary and promotion and tenure "using statistical methods, including regression analysis and content analysis."30 Additional information specific to the Subcommittee's methodology is contained in the Task Force Report on Quantitative Data.
The Subcommittee gathered data from the following sources: "O'Hara Hall (Joan Dinan's database of full-time faculty), Human Resources (with the cooperation of Tom Rucinski) and ITS (with the cooperation of John McArdle)."31 To complete their data collection, the Subcommittee gathered information using a survey instrument that solicited additional information from the full-time faculty. That instrument was designed using the following methods:
Beginning with a template provided from the scholarly literature on gender equity in salary and promotion decisions, the Subcommittee designed a survey that fit the profile of Marquette University faculty. The survey was reviewed by Dr. Connie Bauer of the Marketing Department, who is an expert in market survey techniques. She made significant improvements in design and format. The survey was subsequently pre-tested by Dr. Bauer and Task Force members including Task Force members Kovach and Maranto, and other faculty members, including Dr. Brian Brush, Chair of the Economics Department.32
As Chair of the Quantitative Data Subcommittee, Task Force member Toumanoff acted as "guardian" of the data. In this role, Dr. Toumanoff merged and reconciled data received from several sources, thus ensuring confidentiality. ITS entered the data into a database. This database was configured so that it was not possible to correlate the information with individual faculty members by name, further ensuring confidentiality.34 The confidentiality of individual records was also preserved by a process through which any request for confidential data would be directed to the Task Force Chair for approval before such data could be released. Utilizing this process, no data was released, even to Task Force members, except on a "need-to-know" basis in order to fulfill their specific Task Force duties.
Task Force member Toumanoff described the Subcommittee analytical process as follows:
After the database has been completed, it will be analyzed by a separate workgroup of the Task Force, consisting of myself, Dr. Maranto, and Dr. Dennis Garrett. Our intention is that each of us will examine the database individually using our particular areas of expertise. Then we will meet to compare conclusions and analytical methods. The workgroup will report to the entire Task Force both its findings and the processes by which it arrived at its conclusions.35
Subcommittee on Administrators.
The Subcommittee on Administrators was formed to address those portions of part II of the charge pertaining to recruitment, hiring, and appointment of faculty, workload distribution, allocation of leadership responsibilities, some aspects of compensation, and promotions. Under the leadership of Task Force member McDonald, the Subcommittee met numerous times during the spring, summer, and fall of 2000. The Subcommittee decided that this portion of the charge could effectively be addressed by gathering data from three separate sources: all Department Chairs at Marquette University, all Deans, and two Vice-Presidents: Dr. Jerry Viscione (Executive Vice-President) and Dr. David Buckholdt (Vice-President for Academic Affairs).
A survey questionnaire consisting of twenty-eight questions under eight areas of inquiry was sent to forty-nine department chairs at Marquette (see Task Force Report of the Subcommittee on Administrators, Appendix C). Areas of inquiry included in this Survey were: perspectives, committees, teaching/advising, career advancement/retention, recruitment and hiring, salaries, mentoring and integrating new faculty, and initiatives. Thirty Chairs responded from regular academic departments, and two responses were returned from three Military Science Departments. The three survey solicitations from Military Science Departments were not included in the analysis of data because their faculty are not Marquette employees.
In addition to the survey responses, a brief discussion of two special cases -- the College of Nursing and the Law School -- was included in the Report. Because these units were not structured as departments, the Subcommittee asked their respective Deans, Dean Madeline Wake and Dean Howard Eisenberg, to respond to the questionnaire that was sent to the Chairs. Deans Wake, Eisenberg and Robert Deahl (Dean of the College of Professional Studies) were also included in the separate interviews of Deans.
As is the case with other areas of Task Force inquiry, the Survey of Chairs relied on an academic foundation for its methodology. In that respect, the Survey of Chairs relied on evaluation research. Evaluation research is applied research in the sense that it is intended to produce findings that "have practical applications of use to social and political institutions."36 Evaluation research is, in turn, further subdivided into summative or outcome research and formative or process research.37 A discussion of these methods of research and analysis is included in the Task Force Report of the Subcommittee on Administrators.38
The Subcommittee on Administrators also interviewed Deans of eleven Colleges and Schools at Marquette, as well as Vice-Presidents Viscione and Buckholdt (see Task Force Report of the Subcommittee on Administrators, Appendices E and F). Findings and recommendations from the Survey of Chairs and the Interviews with Deans and Vice-Presidents are included in the Task Force Report of the Subcommittee on Administrators.39
26 See Memo of January 17, 2000, from Dr. Peter Toumanoff to Professor Phoebe Williams, Chair of Gender Equity Task Force, 1.