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Special Collections and Archives

HOLY ROSARY MISSION -- RED CLOUD INDIAN SCHOOL RECORDS



Presented by Red Cloud Indian School with additions from Red Cloud, individual Jesuits, and others, 1977-[ongoing]. The collection contains some records and papers pertaining to St. Francis Mission, Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, which were retained here at the mutual requests of Red Cloud School and St. Francis Mission.

Processed by Philip C. Bantin, 1977, and Mark G. Thiel, 1987-[ongoing], with selected series microfilmed, 1997 and 2001.


Notable Events and Notable People

The Jesuits established Red Cloud Indian School in 1888. This followed Red Cloud's persistent requests for Catholic missionaries and the rescinding of federal restrictions on Catholic evangelization. Since then, Jesuits, Sisters of St. Francis, and lay employees (Lakota and non-Lakota) have staffed the school. After the termination of federal funding, the school continued to prosper through private contributions from Saint Katherine Drexel, federal disbursement of tribal funds held in trust, and operation of a ranch.

Catholicism flourished on the reservation during the first half of the 20th century. In most communities, local parishes were organized, each with a catechist, lay sodalities, and an itinerant Jesuit pastor. Annually, the faithful gathered for reservation wide general sodality meetings followed by the statewide Catholic Sioux Congress.

Christian fervor waned after World War II, which has been addressed by revitalization efforts since the 1970s. Parishes were re-organized with more resident (and fewer itinerant) Jesuit and Native priests and deacons, and parish councils. The general sodality meetings and Catholic Sioux Congresses remain popular among the elders. However, many faithful also attend Mini (diocesan) and National Tekakwitha Conferences and have organized parish Kateri Circles.

 

See also -- Authors and Photographers among the Jesuits and Franciscan Sisters

See also -- Catholic Native America digital image collections

 

Source: Entry Number M-222 of Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans.

Dates Event
1840-1870 Reverend Pierre-Jean de Smet (1801-1873), S.J., an itinerant missionary, befriended the Oglala people.
1870-1881 Under the Peace Policy of U.S. President U.S. Grant, the government banned Catholic missionaries from the Pine Ridge Agency.

1876-1880s

On many different occasions Chief Red Cloud (1822-1909) requested Catholic missionaries for the Oglala people. Among the first times was a council with government officials on White Clay Creek in 1876 and at a White House meeting with President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877. To President Hayes, Red Cloud said, "We would like to have a school house--a large one, that will hold plenty of people. We would like to have Catholic priests and Catholic nuns, so that they could teach our people how to write and read, and instruct us how to do..."
1879, 1889 The Vicariate Apostolate of Dakota Territory was established, which became the Diocese of Sioux Falls in 1889.
1879-1894 Bishop Martin Marty, O.S.B., served as Vicar of Dakota Territory and then first Bishop of Sioux Falls.
1879-1883 Benedictine Monks from Standing Rock Reservation visited intermittently.
1883-1888 Diocesan priests from the Rosebud Reservation visited intermittently.
1884 On March 9th, Reverend J.A. Bushman baptized Chief Red Cloud, who then took "Peter" as his forename.
1885-1888 Bishop Marty asked the Jesuits of the German Province (Buffalo, New York and Holland; now Munich, Germany) to establish a mission. Reverend John B. Jutz, S.J. and Brother Ursus Nunlist, S.J., established the Jesuit community by picking a site and constructing the first buildings for a school and living quarters.
1887 Saint Katharine Drexel (1858-1955), a wealthy Philadelphia heiress, promised Red Cloud that she would fund the mission school.
1888-present The Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity (first Mary Immaculate Province, Nonnenwerth, Germany, then Holy Name Province (Stella Niagara, New York) and later the Sacred Heart Province (Denver, Colorado) established a community and taught at the Holy Rosary Mission school.
1888-1889 The school enrollment was about 100 students, grades 1-8.
1889-1890 The federal government began partial funding of the school.
December 1890- January 1891 Red Cloud protected the mission from possible to retaliation following the killing of Sitting Bull at Standing Rock Reservation and the massacre of many Sans Arc and other Indians at Wounded Knee Creek.
1890 Sacred Heart Church was established in Pine Ridge Village.
1891 Pine Ridge Reservation delegates attended their first annual Catholic Sioux Congress at Standing Rock Reservation. The catechetical ministry and the St. Mary and St. Joseph Societies were then organized within the reservation parishes.
1895-1950s In the Canadian West, Father Albert Lacombe, O.M.I., created the Tableau-Catéchisme (Pictorial Catechism) or "Two Roads" based on Blanchet's L’Éschelle Catholique Historique. Lacombe added color graphics and two paths -- the evil way with a black road and a righteousness way with a red road each replete with corresponding symbols. On South Dakota Indian reservations and elsewhere in the United States and Canada, Catholic missionaries and native catechists used the “Two Roads” together with native language worship publications to the mid-20th century.
1896 Holy Rosary Mission hosted its first Catholic Sioux Congress.
1896-1904 Government school funding decreased gradually and then stopped. More money became available through Katharine Drexel and other Church sources.
1898 The construction is finished on Holy Rosary Church, which has served as the school chapel and a local parish.
1901-1937 Throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary Mission established and attended to many chapels and missions, a number of which later became parishes.
1902 The Diocese of Lead was established and included all of South Dakota west of the Missouri River.
1902-1909 Bishop John Stariha (1845-1915) served as the first Bishop of Lead.
1902-1987 Holy Rosary Mission operated a ranch in Nebraska.
1903 A kindergarten was established at the Holy Rosary Mission school.
1904-1905 The school enrollment exceeded 200 students for the first time.
1904-1906 A new wing was added to the girl's dormitory of the school.
1904-1950 Holy man [Nicholas] Black Elk 1863-1950) was baptized on St. Nicholas' Day, December 6th, 1904. He then served as a local catechist and with Reverend Henry Westropp, S.J., he was also active as a missionary to other Northern Plains tribes from 1908-1917.
1906 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1906 The first recorded baptism by a catechist was performed by Ivan Star Comes Out.
1906-1935 The government made tribal treaty funds available for school support. These were federally administered funds available on a per capita basis through a petition process.
1907 Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred from the German Province's Buffalo Mission to the former Turin Province's Rocky Mountain Mission (now consolidated with the Italian Province, Rome, Italy).
1909 Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the California Province (Los Gatos, California).
1910 Jesuits incorporated Holy Rosary Mission as the Pine Ridge Educational Society.
1910-1915 Bishop Joseph Busch (1866-1953) served as the second Bishop of Lead.
1911 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1912 Among the Jesuits, administration over Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the Missouri Province (headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri).
1916 Fire at St. Francis Mission (Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota) destroys many Holy Rosary archival records that were stored there.
1916-1948 Bishop John J. Lawler (1862-1948) served as the third Bishop of Lead.
1916-1922 Itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary established and attended to Sacred Heart Mission, Santee, Nebraska, which then became an independent mission.
1918 Severe flooding damaged Holy Rosary Mission.
1920-1925 Several parishes closed throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation.
1920 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1922 Red Cloud Hall was built to serve as the boy's dormitory of the school.
1923 The Sodality of the Immaculate Conception was organized. It was the first sodality organized at the school.
1923-1926 A junior high school was established and then discontinued due to space limitations.
1925 Bob Clifford (Oglala) organized Holy Rosary's first boys' basketball team.
1925-1926 The Holy Rosary Mission School enrollment exceeded 300 students for the first time.
1925-1926 18 Jesuits (6 priests and 12 brothers), 18 Sisters of St. Francis, three lay teachers, 10 catechists, and three other lay employees served the mission, school, and chapels throughout reservation.
1926 Our Lady of Lourdes Mission was established in Porcupine.
1930 The Diocese of Lead became the Diocese of Rapid City, reflecting the change in see cities from Lead to Rapid City.
1931 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1931-1937 Our Lady of Lourdes School was opened at Porcupine and became the second Catholic school on the Pine Ridge Reservation.
1931-1937 Our Lady of Lourdes School was staffed by Sisters of the Holy Humility of Mary (Villa Marie, Pennsylvania).
1935-1936 A new gymnasium was constructed at Holy Rosary.
1936 The junior high school was re-established.
1937-1942 Grades nine through twelve were added at the Holy Rosary Mission School.
1937-present Our Lady of Lourdes School was staffed by Notre Dame Sisters (headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska) and lay teachers.
1938 The enrollment at the Holy Rosary Mission School exceeded 400 students for the first time.
1938 Holy Rosary Mission celebrated its golden anniversary and a Catholic Sioux Congress was held.
1941 Holy Rosary Mission established the High School and created the position of high school principal.
1941-1942 The Holy Rosary Mission School won the South Dakota Catholic High School Basketball Championships.
1947-1948 Holy Rosary again won the South Dakota Catholic High School Basketball Championships.
1942 The Holy Rosary Mission High School received accreditation and the first high school class graduates.
1942 Fire caused extensive damage at Holy Rosary Mission.
1943-1959 Several parishes closed throughout the reservation.
1946 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1947-1969 Bishop William T. McCarty (1889-1972), C.Ss.R., served as the fourth Bishop of Rapid City (formerly, Diocese of Lead).
1949 The Jesuits, in cooperation with the Diocese of Rapid City, established Mother Butler Center and St. Isaac Jogues Church in Rapid City, which were administered by Holy Rosary Mission.
1952 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1955 Among the Jesuits, administration of Holy Rosary Mission transferred to the Wisconsin Province (Milwaukee, Wisconsin).
1955-1956 The enrollment of the Holy Rosary Mission School exceeded 500 students for the first time.
1955, 1957 The Holy Rosary Mission High School won the Catholic Indian Basketball Championships.
1961 Holy Rosary Mission hosted the 22nd annual meeting of the Tekakwitha Conference.
1963 Holy Rosary Mission hosted a Catholic Sioux Congress.
1964 The Holy Rosary Mission School closed the dormitories and transformed from a boarding school to a day school.
April, 1968 Robert F. Kennedy visited Holy Rosary Mission School.
1968 The Holy See approved the restoration of the permanent diaconate as a ministry for the Church in the United States.
1968 The first Adult Basic Education classes were held at Holy Rosary Mission.
1968
Reverend Theodore Zuern, S.J., established the Red Cloud Indian Art Show.
1969-1987
Bishop Harold J. Dimmerling (1914-1987) served as the fifth Bishop of Rapid City.
1969 Holy Rosary Mission, which was legally incorporated as the Pine Ridge Educational Society, was renamed Red Cloud Indian School on December 4th.
1970 The enrollment at Our Lady of Lourdes School exceeded 100 students for the first time.
1971 Red Cloud Indian School hosted the 32nd annual meeting of the Tekakwitha Conference.
1972 A flood in Rapid City killed Reverend Francis Collins, S.J. and severely damaged the Mother Butler Center and St. Isaac Jogues Church.
1973 The American Indian Movement occupied and destroyed Sacred Heart Church, Wounded Knee, which was rebuilt in the 1980s.
1973 The Office of Superior of the Jesuit Community was separated from the Office of Director of the Mission.
1974 The Diocese of Rapid City established a permanent deaconate program.
1975 The Diocese of Rapid City ordained Steven Red Elk and Reno Richards as deacons. They are the first Native Americans in the United States to be so ordained.
1975 The Red Cloud Indian School, Office of Director, was renamed Office of the President.
1977-1978 The Diocese of Rapid City established the Sioux Spiritual Center, Maphiya Na Maka Okogina ["Between Heaven and Earth"] at Plainview as an administrative and retreat center for the permanent diaconate and Native outreach programs.
1977 Lay teachers began teaching at Red Cloud Indian School.
1978, 1981, 1982, The boy's high school basketball team won the Lakota Nation Invitational Basketball Championships for the 1977-1978, 1980-1981,
1989 1981-1982, and 1988-1989 school years.
1970s The parishes in Kyle, Oglala, Porcupine, and Wanblee are now served by resident pastors from Red Cloud Indian School.
1982 The Heritage Center was founded to collect, preserve, and exhibit Native American art under director Br. C.M. Simon, S.J.
1983 St. Stephens Church, north of Kyle, held the first Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.
1984 Christ the King Church, Porcupine, held a Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.
1985 Reverend Collins P. Jordan (1917-2004) was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Rapid City. He was the first Oglala Indian in the Diocese to be so ordained.
1985? The Sisters of St. Francis serving at Red Cloud Indian School, St. Francis Mission, and in nearby Nebraska towns, merged their communities and formed the Serena Regional Community.
1988-1997 Bishop Charles J. Chaput (1944-, Potawatomi), O.F.M. Cap. served as 6th Bishop of Rapid City, then Archbishop of Denver and Archbishop of Philadelphia. He was the second Native American appointed as a bishop in the United States.
1997-2010 Bishop Blase J. Cupich (1949-) served as 7th Bishop of Rapid City.
1988 Red Cloud Indian School celebrated its centennial year.
1988 Mother Butler Center, Rapid City, held a Mini-Tekakwitha Conference.
1990 The Diocese established an Inculturation Project Office to revitalize the faith among its 14,000 Brule, Hunkpapa, Oglala, and Sans Arc Indian Catholics.
1992 The Diocesan Inculturation Project Office surveyed 10% of the American Indian Catholics and found 43% under age 18 and less than 20% practicing the Catholic faith.
1992 On behalf of himself and all pre-World War II American Indian catechists in the Diocese, Harry Blue Thunder (Brule) of the Rosebud Reservation received the Lumen Christi Award of the Catholic Church Extension Society.
1994
A devastating fire destroyed the Holy Rosary Mission Church and damaged other areas.
1996 The Red Cloud High School boy's basketball team won the Class A Boys' High School State Basketball Tournament.
1998 A new Church of the Holy Rosary was built and the Heritage Center was renovated extensively.
1998 A tornado destroyed Our Lady of the Sioux Church and all buildings of the parish in Oglala, which were replaced by a new church, parish hall, youth center, and sisters' residence.
2008 In conjunction with the Indiana University American Indian Studies Program, Red Cloud Indian School established its Lakota Language Program to revitalize the living use of the Lakota language and to encourage strong and healthy Lakota identities.
2011 U.S. Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito and federal court justices of the 8th U.S. Circuit Court visited Red Cloud Indian School.
2011- Bishop Robert D. Gruss served as 8th Bishop of Rapid City.

Catholic Religious Communities

Jesuits (Society of Jesus)

Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. From 1888-1941, the Superior of the Jesuit Community served simultaneously as the Director of Holy Rosary Mission.

Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death)
1888-1892 Reverend John B. Jutz (1838-1924), S.J.
1892-1895 Reverend P. Florentin Digmann (1846-1931), S.J.
1895-1896 Reverend John B. Jutz (1838-1924), S.J.
1896-1903 Reverend Aloysius Bosche (1852-1903), S.J.
1903-1908 Reverend Mathias Schmitt (1862-1936), S.J.
1908-1916 Reverend Eugene Buechel (1874-1954), S.J.
1916-1920 Reverend Henry Grotegeers (1871-1957), S.J.
1920-1926 Reverend Louis J. Goll (1877-1946), S.J.
1926-1932 Reverend Albert C. Riester (1874-1951), S.J.
1932-1934 Reverend Aloysius J. Keel (1876-1936), S.J.
1934-1936 Reverend Daniel B. McNamara (1895-1986), S.J.
1936-1941 Reverend Martin A. Schiltz (1891-1979), S.J.
1941-1947 Reverend Francis J. Collins (1903-1972), S.J.
1947-1950 Reverend Leo A. Doyle (1895-1981), S.J.
1950-1955 Reverend Harold A. Fuller (1911-1955), S.J.
1955-1963 Reverend Lawrence E. Edwards (1907-1992), S.J.
1963-1965 Reverend Robert W. Lambeck (1917-), S.J.
1965-1968 Reverend Earl J. Kurth (1916-), S.J.
1968-1973 Reverend Ted F. Zuern (1921-2007), S.J.
1973-1979 Reverend Joseph D. Sheehan (1918-1997), S.J.
1979-1985 Reverend Eugene E. Zimmerman (1918-2007), S.J.
1985-1991 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J.
1991-1994 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J.
1995-1996 Reverend David L. Smith (1953-), S.J.
1996-2002 Reverend William F. Pauly (1947-), S.J.
2002-ongoing Reverend Patrick Burns (1933-), S.J.

Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity

Sources: House Chronicle of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity and The Official Catholic Directory. From 1888-1970, the Superior of the Sisters St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity served simultaneously as the Principal of the Red Cloud Elementary School/Holy Rosary Mission Grade School. In 1985, the communities in Nebraska and South Dakota merged and created the Serena Regional Community.

Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death)
1888-1900 Reverend Mother Kostka Schlaghecken (1850-1932), O.S.F.
1900-1901 Sister Magdalene, O.S.F.
1901-1907 Reverend Mother Lucia, O.S.F.
1907-1915 Reverend Mother Petra, O.S.F.
1915-1921 Reverend Mother Ludgera Terhegger (1874-1959), O.S.F.
1921-1927 Reverend Mother M. Rosalinde Neuenhofer (1879-1927), O.S.F.
1927-1933 Reverend Mother Ludgera Terhegger (1874-1959), O.S.F.
1933-1938 Reverend Mother Leocadia Stecher, O.S.F.
1938-1939 Sister Bertrand Fleming (1893-1984), O.S.F.
1939-1944 Reverend Mother M. Evarista Carver (1882-1960), O.S.F.
1944-1950 Sister Bertrand Fleming (1893-1984), O.S.F.
1950-1954 Reverend Mother M. Agnesine Hargarten (1913-1985), O.S.F.
1954-1957 Reverend Mother Grace Wohlgemuth (1924-?), O.S.F.
1957-1960 Reverend Mother M. Adeltrude Fries (1897-1978), O.S.F.
1961-1966 Reverend Mother M. Bernard Meyer (1923-), O.S.F.
1966-1969 Sister Helen Borszich (1935-), O.S.F.
1969-1970 Sister Marie Therese Archambault (Hunkpapa, 1939-2007), O.S.F.
1970-1985 Unknown

Sisters of the Humility of Mary

From 1931-1937, the Superior of the Humility of Mary Sisters served simultaneously as the Principal of the Our Lady of Lourdes Grade School. The Humility of Mary Sisters were followed by the Notre Dame Sisters, 1937-unknown.

Dates Served Name of Superior (Birth-Death)
1931 Sister John Berchmans Bradley (1872-1955), H.M.
1931-1937 Sister Mildred Walsh-Maloney (1885-1950), H.M.

 

Red Cloud Indian School

Red Cloud Indian School is a private school system comprised of three schools on the Pine Ridge Reservation -- Red Cloud Elementary (Pine Ridge), Our Lady of Lourdes Elementary (Porcupine), and Red Cloud High School (Pine Ridge).

Presidents/Directors, Red Cloud Indian School

Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. From 1888-1968, the Superior of the Jesuit Community served simultaneously as the Director of the Red Cloud Indian School/Holy Rosary Mission School. In 1975, The title of Director was changed to President.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
1888-1968 See list of Jesuit Superiors.
1968-1974 Reverend Theodore (Ted) F. Zuern (1921-2007), S.J.
1974-1976 Reverend Anthony L. Dagelen (1926-), S.J.
1976-1985 Reverend Earl J. Kurth (1916-), S.J.
1985-1991 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J.
1991-1995 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J.
1995-1998 Reverend William McKenney G. (-1998), S.J.
1995-1999 Sister Patricia Cruise, S.C. (Acting)
1999-2010 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J.
2010-present Reverend George E. Winzenburg (1945-), S.J.

Superintendents, Red Cloud Indian School

Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus. The Red Cloud Indian School system established the position of superintendent in 1966.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
1966-1972 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J.
1972-1974 Reverend Gary T. Brophy (1937-1990), S.J.
1974-1976 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J.
1976-1979 Reverend James J. Strzok (1939-) , S.J.
1979-1983 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J.
1983-1994 Reverend David G. Matzko (1949-), S.J.
1994-1995 Reverend John M. Paul (1949-), S.J.
1995-1997 Reverend Peter J. Klink (1950-), S.J.
1997-2000? Reverend Thomas J. Merkel (1962-), S.J.
2000?-2003 Reverend Richard P. (Rich) Abert (1963-), S.J.
2003-2012 Robert Brave Heart, Sr.
2012-present Theodore L. Hamilton

Principals, Red Cloud Elementary School

Source: The Official Catholic Directory. From 1888-1970, the Superior of the Sisters St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity served simultaneously as the Principal of the Red Cloud Elementary School/Holy Rosary Mission Grade School.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)

1888-1970

See list of Superiors of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity.
1970-2000? Unknown
2000?-2000? Ms. Barb Calkins
2000?-present Ms. Jennifer Sierra

Principals, Red Cloud High School

Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Jesuit Provinces and Holy Rosary Mission/Red Cloud Indian School Records. From 1941-1972, the mission director/superintendent served simultaneously as the principal of Red Cloud High School/Holy Rosary Mission High School.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
1941-1942 Reverend William J. Fitzgerald (1904-1965), S.J.
1942-1944 Reverend Anthony J. Adams (1908-1994), S.J.
1944-1955 Reverend Lawrence E. Edwards (1907-1992), S.J.
1955-1964 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J.
1964-1965 Reverend Paul B. Steinmetz (1922-), S.J. (Acting)
1965-1966 Reverend John F. Bryde (1920-), S.J.
1966-1968 Reverend Lawrence A. Jonas (1921-), S.J.
1968-1970 Reverend Joseph J. Labaj (1921-1985), S.J.
1970-1972 Reverend Hubert Boschert (1937-), S.J.
1972-1974 Sister Sheila Carroll (1928-), O.S.F
1974-1978 Reverend W. Kiley Stolz (1932-), S.J.
1978 Mr. John Lemak (1940-)
1978-1979 Reverend Edward D. Mathie (1937-), S.J.
1979-1990 Mr. Charles Cuny (1946-, Oglala)
1990-1992 Ms. Norma Tibbits (1947-, Oglala)
1992-2001 Mr. Robert Brave Heart (Oglala)
2002-2004 Reverend Thomas A. Simonds (1964-), S.J.
2004-2005 Reverend Paul Coelho, S.J., Ph.D.
2005?-present Mr. Nicholas Dressell

Principals, Our Lady of Lourdes Elementary School

Source: The Official Catholic Directory.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
1926-2000s Unknown
2000s Ms. Alice Phelps

Associate Pastor/ Administrators, Our Lady of Lourdes Elementary School

Sources: The Official Catholic Directory and Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death)
1926-1936 Reverend Leo C. Cunningham (1888-1965), S.J.
1936-1944 Reverend Louis E. Meyer (1900-1985), S.J.
1944-1950 Reverend William J. Fitzgerald (1904-1965), S.J.
1950-1975 Reverend Leonard J. Fencl (1905-1986), S.J.
1975-1976 Reverend John A. Hennessy (1934-), S.J.
1977-1982 Reverend Anthony L. Dagelen (1926-), S.J.
1982-1997 Reverend Ronald S. Seminara (1944-), S.J.
1997-2002 Reverend James H. Ryan (1937-), S.J.
2002-present Reverend William F. Pauly (1947-), S.J.

Oglala Sioux Tribal Presidents who attended Red Cloud Indian High School

Sources: Holy Rosary Mission - Red Cloud Indian School Records, Series 2-2 at Marquette University and the Oglala Sioux Tribe Archives at Oglala Lakota College. Oglala Lakota College maintains a presidential portrait gallery in the Woksape Tipi (Library) at its Piya Wiconi Campus, Kyle, South Dakota. Since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act in 1934, 35 Oglala Lakota Presidents have served 2-year terms of office from 1935 to 2002. The following presidents attended Red Cloud High School.

Presidential Service Name (Birth-Death)

Home Community

Graduated from High School
13th President (1957-1960)
James L. Iron Cloud (1950-)

Kyle

1970
15th President (1962-1964) William Whirlwind Horse (1941-) Allen -
22nd President (1976-1978) Albert W. Trimble (1925?-)

Wanblee

-
26th President (1984-1986) Newton Cummings (1937-) Martin 1957

 

Pine Ridge Reservation Parishes

Chronology

From 1901-1937, itinerant Jesuits from Holy Rosary Mission established and attended to many chapels and missions throughout the Pine Ridge Reservation. Multiple congregation and/or community names indicate name changes with current ones appearing first followed by past ones. Congregations with resident pastors are so noted.

Source: Entry Number M-222 of Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans, 2003.

Congregation, Community Dates (Disposition)
Sacred Heart Mission, Pine Ridge [Village]/ Pine Ridge Agency 1890-present (1928, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
Holy Rosary Church, Holy Rosary Mission 1898-present
St. Joseph's Mission, Hisle/ Bear Creek 1901-1959 (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin; closed)
Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Martin 1901- (1929, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
St. Peter's Mission, St. Peter/ Wounded Knee Creek 1901-ca. 1973 (closed)
St. Paul's Mission, Porcupine Creek 1905- (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lordes, Porcupine)
Our Lady of Good Counsel/ St. Anthony's/ Holy Guardian Angels Mission, Slim Butte 1905-present
St. Stephen's Mission, Lower Medicine Root 1906- (1970s, transferred to Our Lady of Sorrors, Kyle)
Our Lady of Good Counsel Mission, No Water 1908-?
Our Lady of the Lake Mission, Lacreek 1909- (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)
St. John of the Cross Mission/ St. Lucy's, Allen/ Plenty Bears 1910- (1970s, transferred to St. Ignatius, Wanblee)
(1980s, transferred to Our Lady of Sorrows, Kyle)
St. Henry's Mission, Potato Creek 1910-1959, 1970s-present
St. Paul's Mission, Sharp's Corner 1912- (n.d., transferred to St. Agnes, Manderson)
St. Ignatius Mission, Lips Camp 1912-1916 (closed)
Forty Martyrs Mission, Plenty Bears 1912-ca. 1920 (closed)
Sacred Heart Mission, Wounded Knee/Brennan 1913-present (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lordes, Porcupine)
St. Agnes Mission, Manderson 1913-present (ca. 1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Mission, Martin 1917-present (1919, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
Sacred Heart Mission, Vetal 1917- present (1919, transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)
St. Margaret's Mission, Grass Creek 1917-1925 (closed)
St. Magdalene's Mission, Lower Porcupine 1917-1925 (closed)
St. Bernard's Mission, Red Shirt/ Red Shirt Table/ Cheyenne River 1917-1949 (closed), 1970-present
St. Anne's/St. Anthony's Mission, Wolf Creek 1917-1959 (closed)
Our Lady of Sorrows/ Ss. Mary and Anna Mission, Kyle 1917- (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
Our Lady of the Sioux/ St. Elizabeth's Mission, Oglala 1917-present (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
(1999, destroyed by tornado; 2001, rebuilt)
St. Joseph's Mission, Lake View 1920-1925 (closed)
St. Elizabeth's Mission, Rock Creek 1920-1925 (closed)
Our Lady of Sorrows Mission, Spring Creek 1920-1925 (closed)
Immaculate Conception Mission, Wanamaker 1920-1925 (closed)
Christ the King Church and Our Lady of Lourdes Mission, Porcupine 1926-present (1931, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
St. Mary Magdalene Mission, Rockyford 1926-1961 (1931, transferred to Our Lady of Lourdes, Porcupine; closed)
St. Madeline Sophie Mission, Three Mile Creek 1926-1959 (closed)
St. Ignatius Loyola Mission, Wanblee 1926- (1970s, becomes a parish with resident pastor)
St. Joseph's Mission, Cuny Table 1926-present (ca. 1975, transferred to Our Lady of Lourdes, Porcupine)
St. Cecelia's Mission, Red Water 1926-1943 (closed)
St. Charles Borromeo Mission, Batesland 1926-1969 (transferred to Sacred Heart, Martin)
St. Barbara's Mission, White River/Medicine Root Creek 1931-1943 (closed)
St. Anthony's/St. Lucy's Mission, Corn Creek 1931-1950 (closed)
St. Ann's Mission, Colored Hills 1933-ca. 1956 (closed)
St. Aloysius Mission, Holy Rosary Mission Ranch, Nebraska 1936-1953 (closed)
Our Lady of Perpetual Help Mission, Pine Creek 1936-1959 (closed)
Holy Rosary Mission, Interior ca. 1955-present (1970s, transferred to St. Ignatius, Wanblee)

Native Catechists and Prayer Leaders (Oglala laity)

Notable Sources: Stipend lists in Series 3-2 Financial Records, 1928-1931, The Catholic Church among the Oglala People, Historical Notes (1876-1985), 1985, and We Walk By Faith, The Growth of the Catholic Faith in Western South Dakota by Sr. Eleanor Solon, O.S.B., 2002. Data from the Stipend Lists was compiled in 1992 for the Lumen Christi Award Application of the Diocese of Rapid City.

Name (Birth-Death) Community and Dates Served
[Afraid of] Hawk, Emil Unknown, 1930-1931, n.d.
Apple

Charlie

Unknown, 1931, n.d.,
Kyle, 1928-1931, n.d.
Bald Eagle Bear, Peter Wanblee, 1928-1931, n.d.
Black Elk [Nicholas W., Sr.] (1862-1950) Oglala, 1907; Manderson, 1907-1914, 1916-1936, Ravinia, Yankton Reservation, 1913-1916
Boyer, John Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d.
Broken Leg, Moses Kyle, n.d.
Catches, Paul Manderson, n.d.
Fast Horse, Phillip Allen, n.d.
Fast Wolf
Antoine
Pine Ridge, n.d.
Ed
Unknown, 1928-1929, n.d.
Philip
Wounded Knee, n.d.
Tomas
Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d.
Fills the Pipe, Silas Red Shirt Table, 1928-1931, n.d.
Fool Head, John Slim Butte, 1928-1931, n.d.
Grass Jr., Jim Porcupine, 1929-1930, n.d.
Hernandez, Reyes [Raymond?] Cheyenne Creek, 1928-1931, n.d.
Horn Cloud, Joe Potato Creek and Slim Butte, n.d.
Iron White Man Unknown, 1928- 1928, n.d.
Jealous of Him, Oscar [prayer leader] Lower Medicine Root, 1990s
Long, Dave Oglala, n.d.
Marrowbone, Ben Calico, 1928-1931, n.d.
Mesteth Manderson, n.d.
Mousseaux, Louis P. Kyle, n.d.
Patton, William Unknown, 1931-1931, n.d.
Poor Bear, W. Unknown, 1929-1929, n.d.
Randall, Charles "Charlie" Oglala, 1931-1931, n.d.
Randall, William "Bill" Bear Creek, 1928-1931, n.d.
Red Hair, William Unknown, 1929-1931, n.d.
Red Horn, Albert Unknown, 1928-1931, n.d.
Red Willow, Joseph Wanblee, n.d.
Richard, Joseph Unknown, 1930-1931, n.d.
Slow Bear, John Oglala, n.d.
Star [Comes Out], Ivan No Water, 1928-1931, n.d.
Two Two, Alex 1928-1928, n.d.
White Crow, Paul Edward Oglala, n.d.; Wanblee, 1928-1930, n.d.
Yellow Bull, Tom Manderson, 1931-1931, n.d.

Native Peramemt Deacons (Diocesan Clergy)

Sources: Diocese of Rapid City and The Official Catholic Directory.

Dates Served Name (Birth-Death) Community, Dates Served
1975-1986 Reverend Mr. Stephen Red Elk (Oglala) (1917-1986) Manderson, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1975-1986.
1975-ongoing Reverend Mr. Reno Richards (Oglala) (1938- ) Allen, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1975- .
1978-1996 Reverend Mr. Victor Bull Bear (Oglala) (1939-1996) Kyle and Lower Medicine Root, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1978-1996.
1982-1995 Reverend Mr. Francis Hairy Chin (Hunkpapa) (1916-1997) Kenel, Standing Rock Reservation, 1982-1991; Rapid City, 1991-1995.
1984-2002 Reverend Mr. Lawrence Whiting (Oglala) (1913-2002) Kyle, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1984-2002.
1985-ongoing Reverend Mr. Harold Congdon (Sans Arc) (1949-) Cherry Creek, Cheyenne River Reservation, 1985-1988; Oglala, Pine Ridge Reservation, 1985-1994;
Dupree, Cheyenne River Reservation, 1994-1998; Parmelee, Rosebud Reservation, 1998-?
1986-ongoing Reverend Mr. James "Heavy" Garnett (Oglala) (1936-dec.) Rapid City, 1986-?
1994-ongoing Reverend Mr. Leroy DeCory (Brulé) (1938- ) St. Francis, Rosebud Reservation, 1994-1995; Rapid City, 1995-ongoing
1995-ongoing Reverend Mr. Calvin Clifford (Oglala)
Martin, 1995-?

Native Priests (Diocesan Clergy)

Sources: Diocese of Rapid City and The Official Catholic Directory.

Name (Birth Forenames, Birth-Death)
Jordan (Oglala), Reverend Collins "C.P." P. (1917-2004) ordained a diocesan priest in 1985.

Native Sisters

O.S.F. = Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity

S.S.S.F. = School Sisters of St. Francis

Sources: The Catholic Church among the Oglala People, Historical Notes (1876-1985), 1985, and the Sacred Heart Province Archives (Denver, Colorado) of the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity.

Name (Birth Forenames, Birth-Death)
Archambault (Hunkpapa), Sister Marie Therese (Ida) (1939-2007), O.S.F.
Clifford (Oglala), Sister Bernardette (Anita) (1937-), O.S.F.
Clifford (Oglala), Sister Geraldine (Esther) (1931-), O.S.F.
Cuny (Oglala), Sister Genevieve (Carmilita) (1930-), O.S.F.
McGaa (Oglala), Sister Helena, S.S.S.F.
Mousseau (Oglala), Sister Lucy, S.S.S.F.
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