Special Collections 
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AUTHORS, PHOTOGRAPHERS, AND NOTABLE ACHIEVERS AMONG THE JESUITS AND FRANCISCAN SISTERS IN SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING


Many of the photographs, papers, and recordings by and about the Jesuits (priests and brothers of the Society of Jesus) and Sisters of St. Francis are dispersed and co-mingled among several archival collections at Marquette University, which reflects the provenance of the documents prior to their transfer to Marquette. The bulk of these separated papers are included in the records of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, Holy Rosary Mission and Red Cloud Indian School, St. Francis Mission, and St. Stephen's Mission. For comprehensive searching -- see --  Search the Collections.

The following chart provides names, birth/death years, and the years these persons were assigned to specific Indian ministries as an aid to navigating the documents. Although the Jesuit ministries in South Dakota and Wyoming have been administered by the German, Missouri, and Wisconsin Jesuit Provinces, not all Jesuits involved have belonged to these provinces.

Rapid City & Plainview (Howes), South Dakota -- Mother Butler Center and St. Isaac Jogues Church, Rapid City, a Catholic Native American community center and parish forming a single complex, and/or Mahpiya na Maka Okoigna, the Sioux Spiritual Center, Howes/Plainview, South Dakota, a Catholic Native American retreat and training center of the Diocese of Rapid City administered by the Jesuits.

Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota -- Holy Rosary Mission/Red Cloud Indian School and the Pine Ridge Reservation Catholic parishes, which have been served by Jesuits and the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity. 

Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota -- St. Francis Mission and School and the Rosebud Reservation Catholic parishes, which have been served by Jesuits and the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity.  

Wind River Reservation, Wyoming -- St. Stephen's Mission and School and/or the Wind River Reservation Catholic parishes, which have been served by Jesuits and the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance of Philadelphia.

Elsewhere -- Assignments outside of South Dakota and Wyoming, which are not included.

Sources: Catalogs of the German, Missouri, Wisconsin, and combined U.S.A. Provinces of the Society of Jesus; New Lakota Dictionary, Jan Ullrich, editor, www.lakhota.org, 2008; House Chronicles of the Franciscan Sisters of Penance and Christian Charity in Series 2 Reports, Holy Rosary Mission/Red Cloud Indian School Records, and in Series 2 Reports, St. Francis Mission Records; and Series 1 Author Index to Correspondence, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, all at Marquette University.

See also -- Guides to Catholic-Related Records for the United States about Native Americanswhich provides histories, collection summaries, and contact information to archival repositories of the Jesuits, Sisters of St. Francis, and other pertinent sources.

Ministerial Assignments in South Dakota and Wyoming

Links to places include local histories.

Name (Birth-Death) and Title
Archambault, Sister Marie Therese (Ida) (1939-2007) (Hunkpapa), O.S.F.
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1960s
-
-
Bryde, [formerly Reverend] John F. (1920-) [formerly S.J.]
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1954-1967
-
-
Bucko, Reverend Raymond (Ray) A. (1954-), S.J. 
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1978-1980, 1988-1990
2002-2003
-
Buechel, Reverend Eugene (1874-1954), S.J.
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1908-1916, 1926-1929
1902-1904, 1916-1926, 1929-1954
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Clementina, Reverend Mother M. (18??-1963), O.S.F.
-
-
-
1909-1932, 1935-1963
Cunningham, Reverend Leo C. (1888-1965), S.J.
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1926-1937
-
-
Digmann, Reverend P. Florentin (1846-1931), S.J.
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1888-1889, 1893-1895
1886-1888, 1889-1893, 1895-1931
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Doll, Reverend Donald (Don) A. (1937-), S.J.
-
-
1975
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Goll, Reverend Louis J. (1877-1946), S.J.
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1903-1908, 1916-1926
1913-1916, 1926-1946
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Hatcher, Reverend John E. (1943-), S.J.
1976-2003
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2003-[ongoing]
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Hilbert, Reverend Robert J. (1926-), S.J.
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-
1974-1976
1987?-1995, 1998-[ongoing] 
Jutz, Reverend John B. (1838-1924), S.J.
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1887-1892, 1895-1896
1886, 1893-1895
1884-1887
Manhart, Reverend Paul I. (1927-2008), S.J.
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1961-1962, 1964-1968, 1970-2003
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-
Neuenhofer, Reverend Mother M. Rosalinde (1879-1928), O.S.F.
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1920-1928
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-
Nunlist, Brother Ursus (1847-1928), S.J.
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1888-1895
1887-1888
1884-1887
Perrig, Reverend Emil D. (1846-1909), S.J.
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1888-1896, 1908-1909
1886-1888, 1896-1908
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Schlaghecken, Reverend Mother Kostka (1850-1932), O.S.F.
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1888-1899, 1900-1932
1886-1888, 1899
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Scott, Reverend John M. (1913-2007), S.J.
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1938-1941
-
-
Short, Reverend Anthony (Tony) J. (1939-), S.J. 
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-
-
1975-1988
Sialm, Reverend Placidus F. (1872-1940), S.J.
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1907-1912, 1916-1920
1901-1903, 1914-1916, 1922-1940
1912-1914
Sifton, Reverend John B. (1871-1940), S.J. 
-
-
-
190?-1912
Smet, Reverend Pierre-Jean de (1801-1872), S.J. - - - -
Starkloff, Reverend Carl F. (1933-2008), S.J.
-
-
-
1976-1982
Steinmetz, Reverend Paul B. (1928-), S.J.
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1955-1957, 1962-1974
-
-
Stolzman, Reverend William (Bill) F. (1938-) [formerly S.J.]
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1973-1975, 1984-1987
1976-1982
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Strzok, Reverend James (Jim) J. (1939-), S.J.
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1977-1987
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-
Westropp, Reverend Henry I. (1872-1952), S.J.
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1889-1901, 1906-1909, 1913-1917
1902-1905, 1909-1912
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White, Reverend Robert (Bob) A. (1931-), S.J.
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-
-
-
Zimmerman, Reverend Joseph A. (1885-1954), S.J.
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1931-1935, 1937-1950
1914-1919, 1924-1931
-
Zuern, Reverend Theodore (Ted) F. (1921-2007), S.J.
1988-1995
1968-1975
1954-1955
-

Biographical Notes on Selected Persons

Archambault, Sister Marie Therese (Ida) (1939-2007) (Hunkpapa), O.S.F.: Sister Marie Therese graduated from St. Francis Mission High School in 1957 and joined the Sisters of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity. She taught at Red Cloud Indian High School (then called Holy Rosary Mission High School) and later she studied in Rome. and served in Denver and the Tekakwitha Conference National Center as well as on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

Buechel, Reverend Eugene (1874-1954), S.J.: Father Buechel was born Eugen Büchel in Schleida (now Schleid) Germany. He entered the Jesuit Society in 1897, immigrated to the United States in 1900, and was ordained a Catholic priest in 1906. Buechel was dedicated to converting Native Americans to Christianity and transforming their lives. But also he was dedicated to preserving their Lakota language and cultural heritage by collecting and compiling substantial documentation and objects on Brulé and Oglala language, beliefs, and traditions.

Between 1902 and 1954, Buechel created over 24,000 Lakota and Dakota word entries on slips of paper for a bilingual Lakota dictionary. Approximately 18,000 came from the work of Stephen R. Riggs, several thousand came from his conversations with native people, and a few came from the works of Emil Perrig and Ella Cara Deloria. In collaboration with Ivan Stars and other Lakota catechists, Buechel collected oral histories, now published bilingually, and cultural objects with related information, now preserved at the Buechel Memorial Lakota Museum, St. Francis, South Dakota, which he founded in 1947. In his Bible History in the Language of the Teton Sioux Indians (1924), Buechel used the Riggs spelling system whereas in his A Grammar of Lakota (1939) he used Deloria's newer system, which added distinctions for aspirated and plain stops. His dictionary was published first as, A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Language (1970) and then as Lakota Dictionary, Lakota-English/English-Lakota (2002); Father Manhart edited both editions, the latter of which includes controversial editorial decisions. 

Between August 14, 1922 and ca. 1945, Buechel created over over 10,000 photographic images with a Kodak No. 3 camera, which were developed and printed by O'Neill Photo Company in O'Neill, Nebraska. He controlled backgrounds, sought softer light for portraits (when available), clarity for each face in large groups (figure-field relationships), consistent respect-for-the-subject, and consistent respect-for-the-medium. He subjects reflected the diversity of people on the Rosebud and  Pine Ridge Reservations. (For more information, see Father Buechel, S.J.: Rosebud and Pine Ridge Photographs, 1922-1942,  by David Wing, El Cajon, California: Grossmont College, 1974.)

Cunningham, Reverend Leo C. (1888-1965), S.J.: Father Cunningham served on the Pine Ridge Reservation. However, his photograph album pertains primarily to the Rosebud Reservation, 1917-1919, 1921-1922, before his years on Pine Ridge. Most images are duplicates with verso captions identifying and dating subjects, events and localities.

Jutz, Reverend John B. (1838-1924), S.J.: Father Jutz led the founding of Holy Rosary, St. Francis, and St. Stephen's missions. Thereafter he taught at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York. 

Nunlist, Brother Ursus (1847-1928), S.J.: Brother Nunlist assisted Father Jutz in founding Holy Rosary, St. Francis, and St. Stephen's missions.

Schlaghecken, Reverend Mother Kostka (1850-1932), O.S.F.:  Mother Kostka led the establishment of the communities of the Sister of St. Francis of Penance and Christian Charity at Holy Rosary and St. Francis missions and served as the first superior of both communities. 

Scott, Reverend John M. (1913-2007), S.J.: Father Scott taught math and general science at Holy Rosary Mission, 1938-1941, and physics at Campion Jesuit High School, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, 1948-1978. He wrote several articles and pamphlets pertaining to the South Dakota Jesuit missions.

Sifton, Reverend John B. (1871-1940), S.J.: Father Sifton began his Native American ministry in Montana and Wyoming. He transferred to the Jesuit missions in Alaska by the late 1920s.

Smet, Reverend Pierre-Jean de (1801-1872), S.J.: Father de Smet  began visiting the tribes along the Missouri River in 1839. In 1851 and 1868, he brought together the representatives of the tribes and the United States for the Fort Laramie Treaties. He also made commitments regarding the future establishment of Catholic schools within their respective reservations.

Steinmetz, Reverend Paul B. (1928-), S.J.: Father Steinmetz studied Native American religious traditions, which is reflected in his pastoral work, writings, recordings, and photography.

Stolzman, Reverend William (Bill) F. (1938-) [formerly S.J.]: Father Stolzman left the Society of Jesus and is now a priest of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. However, from 1973-1978, he was a Jesuit involved in ministry to Native Americans and in so doing, he chaired the Medicine Men and Clergy Meetings at St. Francis Mission. The meetings were a theological dialogue with 85 sessions between Brulé and Oglala Indian medicine men (with spouses and associates) and Jesuit priests. From them, Father Stolzman wrote The Pipe and Christ: A Christian-Sioux Dialogue, 1986, a comparative analysis of Catholic and Native belief and ritual. Stolzman also created Lakota language teaching aids with Reyes Hernandez (Oglala).

Westropp, Reverend Henry I. (1872-1952), S.J.: In 1905, Father Westropp was ordained a priest at St. Francis Mission. At various times he served on the Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Yankton reservations, often in concert with catechist [Nick] Black Elk, who became a close friend. In 1917, following the expulsion of German Jesuits in India, Father Westropp, and other U.S. Jesuits, transferred there to help staff the Jesuit missions.

Zimmerman, Reverend Joseph A. (1885-1954), S.J.: Joseph Zimmerman entered the Jesuit society in 1907 and was a college student in formation from 1916 to 1921. During vacations and semester breaks he was known to visit intermittently at St. Francis Mission and he taught grades 6-8 there from 1914 to 1919. Throughout his career he created thousands of still photographs pertaining to the Lakota of the Pine Ridge and Rosebud reservations and Rapid City. Those attributed to him date from between 1916 and 1947, but he may have created some at an earlier date. As late as the early 1920s, he captured his images with glass-plate negatives. He favored dramatic staging, and when working with native subjects, he preferred individuals with dramatic "full-blood" surnames. Consistent lighting control on his subjects was common problem in his early photography. Two motion pictures from 1949 were also credited to Father Zimmerman.

Zeurn, Reverend Theodore (Ted) F. (1921-2007), S.J.:  Father Zeurn served in Native American parish ministry in Kansas, South Dakota, and Minneapolis. He also served as Associate Director of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 1981-1985, and as Legislative Assistant of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 1995-2001.

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