Special Collections 
	and Archives

JULIANA PEÑA CALAC PAPERS


Mostly correspondence regarding Cupeno Indians of Pala, California, and Pena Calac's concerns with family, the community, government, Catholic schools, and the military. Also included is school work by her brother, Nicolas J. Pena, while a student at the Sherman Institute.

Donated by Mary Hernandez, Pala, California, September 1996. Processed by Mark G. Thiel, CA (Certified Archivist), 1997.


Biographical Note

Juliana Peña Calac (1893-1967) and her brother, Nicholas J. Peña, were Cupeño Indians from Pala, California. Nicholas attended Carlisle Indian School (Carlisle, Pennsylvania) and the Sherman Institute (Riverside, California).  


Scope and Content

Series 1, Correspondence: Letters regarding Cupeño Indians of Pala, California, and Juliana Pena Calac's concerns with family, the community, government, Catholic schools, and the military. Also included is school work by her brother, Nicolas, while a student at the Sherman Institute. Correspondents include brother Nicolas and other relatives; Ambrosio Ortega (d. 1922), a Cupeño Indian leader; Reverend Florian B. Hahn, Superintendent of St. Boniface School (Banning, California); and various government officials. Notable among the community concerns were issues relating to Cupeño Indian land claims and water rights. A few letters were written in Spanish.

Series 2, Nicholas J. Peña's School Work: Class work by Nicholas at the Sherman Institute. 

Series 3, Note Books: Two volumes of correspondence and minutes of meetings that pertain to family, the community, and schools.

Series 4, Photography: Two black and white prints of unidentified individuals. 

Series 5, Printed Materials: Publications and clippings relating to Indian rights and justice issues of interest to Cupeño Indians. For preservation purposes, The Indian, 1(1921): 4, Riverside, California, was separated from the collection and added to the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 14-1.


More Related Resources

  • Christianity and Native America: Checklist to all Marquette Native Catholic collections plus access to detailed information about them including genealogical records; access to digital image collections and The Indian Sentinel historic magazine online; information for educators about Saint Kateri Tekakwitha and her Native Catholic followers.

  • Guides to Catholic-Related Records about Native Americans in the United States: Over 1,000 repository entries in PDF format to help genealogists and historical researchers find the records they need on American Indians and Alaskan Natives. The entries provide contact information on the repositories, brief descriptions about the records, the Native groups served, and the associated Catholic organizations. Many of the entries include institutional chronologies to explain the history of the records.

Black and Indian Mission Office > Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions

Tekakwitha Conference National Center

U.S. Catholic Conference of Catholic Bishops > Cultural Diversity in the Church

Ask an Archivist