Marquette UniversityWriting Across the CurriculumHeader Picture
LH Picture
 
Only the WAC Site
All of Marquette.edu
 

Academic Honesty Requires that You Document All Your Sources

Citation-Sequence References for Scientific Writing

     Because research in science builds on previous research that may need to be referred to frequently, many scientific disciplines call for citation systems that use Arabic numerals to link sentences and phrases of a paper or article's text to a list of references arranged in the numerical order in which the sources are cited in the paper. Thus, many science and technical classes expect students to adopt the citation method that is prominent in the given discipline.

American Chemical Society (ACS)

Council of Biological Editors (CBE), now Council of

   Scientific Editors (CSE)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

 

American Chemical Society (ACS)

     ACS format signals references with an italicized numeral placed in parenthesis at the end of a sentence, on the same line as the sentence. At the end of the paper (not on a separate page), the full references are collected under the heading “Literature Cited,” and listed in the order in which they are cited in the text. Subsequent references to the same source are noted with the same parenthetical numeral.

 

ACS Resources

  • The Chemistry Department suggests students look for model citations in recent issues of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, which is available online through Marqcat.
  • The ACS Style Guide (1997) is available for library use only in the reference area of Raynor Library.

Council of Biological Editors, now Council of Scientific Editors (CBE/CSE)

    

     This documentation style provides both a citation-sequence format that uses superscript numerals to signal a reference and an author-date (also called name-year) format. Both systems require that the “References” list of full citations at the end of the paper include the following: the name(s) of the author(s), year of publication, full title of the article (or book), the journal in which it was published (for a book, the name of the publisher and the city of publication), volume number of the journal, and the first and last page numbers of the article.

 

Numbered References (Citation-sequence). In this system, you mark in-text citations with superscript numerals that follow the sequence in which you refer to them in the text of your paper. You then provide full references on a separate sheet (or more) at the end of the paper, numbering them in the sequence in which they appeared in the text. Subsequent references in the text to the same source are noted with the same superscript number.

 

Name-Year References. Some professors may want you to use the CBE/CSE format for full citations but to note references internally by placing the author’s surname and the date of publication in parentheses. Provide the full references on a separate sheet (or more) at the end of the paper, listing them in alphabetical order by the authors’ surnames.

 

CBE/CSE Resources

  • The CBE/CSE manual, Scientific Style and Format, 6th ed. (1994), is available in the reference area of Raynor Library for library use only. (A seventh edition is in preparation.)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    

     In the IEEE system, references are signaled by numbers presented in square brackets on the same line as the sentence, and full citations are presented in a “References” list at the end of the paper.

 

IEEE Online Resources for Citation Formats

`
 
E-Mail to a Friend
   

Page Last Modified: July 7, 2011

  For suggestions and corrections, please email
Dr. Rebecca Nowacek, Associate Professor of English
Director of the Ott Memorial Writing Center, 240 Raynor Library (414.288.5542)
© 2005 Marquette University.
P.O. Box 1881 · Milwaukee, Wis. USA · 53201-1881