THEO 228 Apocalyptic Literature
Description and Schedule
Phones: 414-288-7649 (office); 414-962-3460 (home)
Office: Coughlin Hall, 217
GOALS FOR THIS COURSE:
The main objective of
this course is investigation of the conceptual world of Jewish
apocalypticism and its formative value for early Christian theology.
Jewish apocalyptic thought, a major theological paradigm of the Second
Temple period, exercised arguably an unmatched influence on early
Christian authors and thus became, in the words of Ernst Käsemann, “the
mother of all Christian theology.”
Seminar - a mixture
of introductory lectures, discussions, and student led presentations.
short seminar papers/presentations (3-5 pages each); one longer course
paper (15-20 pages).
The first short
paper/presentation will be a status quaestionis (“state of
the question” – “S.Q.”) report on an apocalyptic document discussed
in this course. (Please announce your choices by Wednesday,
September 8. I would prefer no duplication, so please discuss your
preferences among yourselves). The report should attempt to address
the following questions: What are the hypothetical date and the
provenance of the text? In what languages has the text survived?
State of preservation, critical editions, original language,
structure, historical and theological importance, possible social
groups behind the text, relation to other apocalyptic texts, the
best secondary literature. You can start your preparation for the
paper by reading introductions to the texts in Charlesworth’s The
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. However, since Charlesworth’s
volume was published more than twenty years ago you will need to
supplement it with a newer scholarship. If you are “at sea” about
what sort of resources to use, you are welcome to confer with your
instructor and may also wish to consult these bibliographical
guides: J. H. Charlesworth with J. A. Mueller, The New Testament
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha: A Guide to Publications, with
Excursuses on Apocalypses (American Theological Library
Association Bibliography Series. Metuchen, NJ/London: American
Theological Library Association and Scarecrow Press, 1987); J.-C.
Haelewyck, Clavis Apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti (Brepols:
Turnhout, 1998); A. Lehnhardt, Bibliographie zu den jüdischen
Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit (Gütersloh, 1999); L.
diTommazo, A Bibliography of Pseudepigrapha Research 1850-1999
(Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001).
The second short
paper/presentation will deal with the theological content of an
apocalyptic document discussed during the course. Students cannot
choose the same document they chose for their status quaestionis
presentation. It will be ideal if a student can concentrate on one
or two major themes in the document (such as the Heavenly Temple;
the Son of Man; the Origin of Evil, the Heavenly Throne, the Divine
Judgment, etc) and explore their backgrounds in other texts. I will
suggest a list of possible major themes, but this list can be always
supplemented with new themes suggested by students. Students are
also encouraged to select a different major theme for each study so
that we will have a chance to discuss as many theological themes as
possible. So please talk among yourselves and announce your choices
by Wednesday, September 8. I will supply a preliminary bibliography
that will introduce you to the literature related to some of the
major themes. I realize that it can be difficult to make a synthetic
study of major theme(s) in apocalyptic writing before their
substantive discussion in class. Therefore students have an option
to substitute the “theme” presentation for two book reviews related
to the chosen texts and themes. I will supply the list of books for
papers/presentations should contain 3-4 pages of single spaced prose
or outline format and a page of bibliography, to be passed out to
all class-members one week before class discussion. Book reviews
should be 1-2 pages of single space prose.
assignment will be a seminar paper of 15-20 pages, focusing on a
literary, theological, social, or historical question pertaining to
apocalyptic texts and traditions. The paper is due December 13. The
topic of the final paper will be chosen by student. It can be based
on student’s short papers/presentations. Your final paper should
conform to the style sheet presented in the SBL Handbook of Style
(Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999). The Handbook can be
found in the library (CALL NUMBER: PN 147.S26) and on the Internet
in the PDF format.
The initial paper
proposal should be one or two pages of single space prose describing
your topic and the aims of your project plus another page of
preliminary bibliography. The paper proposal with bibliography is
due to instructor on Monday, October 4.
The student will
present a preliminary draft of the paper during the last weeks of
the class. The preliminary draft will be passed out to all
class-members one week before class discussion.
assigned reading and active participation in seminar discussions are
of primary importance. Note that assigned readings are to be
completed before each session. Evaluation of the student’s
performance will be based on class participation, paper-proposal,
two short presentations/papers, preliminary paper-presentation and
especially the final paper.
Hebrew and Greek
would be useful to our study. Students will be encouraged to utilize
relevant sources in French and/or German in preparation of their longer
The Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha (vol. 1): Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments (ed.
J. H. Charlesworth; New York: Doubleday, 1985 ). ISBN:
J. J. Collins,
The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic
Literature (Eerdmans, 1998). ISBN: 0802843719.
Materials. Note especially The Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism
(vol. 1) in the Raynor Library Reference Section, CALL NUMBER: Ref.
BL501. E53 1998.
All electronic documents listed in the
schedule are available for download only as *.
files. These files require
free Adobe Acrobat Reader
in order to be viewed.
Monday, August 30: Introduction to the Course
Students and Instructor; Discussion of Syllabus
Wednesday, September 1: Literary Genre: What is an Apocalypse?
Monday, September 6: Labor Day – No class
Wednesday, September 8: Roots of Apocalypticism: Mesopotamian Traditions
Monday, September 13: Roots of Apocalypticism: Mesopotamian Traditions
Wednesday, September 15: Roots of Apocalypticism: Biblical Traditions
“Glory,” in: DDD, 348-352.
G. Quispel, “Ezekiel
1:26 in Jewish Mysticism and Gnosis,” VC 34 (1980) 1-13.
Books for Review:
T. N. D. Mettinger, The Dethronement of Sabaoth. Studies in the
Shem and Kabod Theologies (Coniectanea Biblica. Old Testament
Series, 18; Lund: Wallin & Dalholm, 1982); P. D. Hanson, The
Dawn of Apocalyptic: The Historical and Sociological Roots of Jewish
Apocalyptic Eschatology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983).
Monday, September 20: Early Enochic Apocalypses I: The Book of the
1-36 = Book of the Watchers (esp. chs. 14-15). OTP, 1.13-28.
Apocalyptic Imagination, ch. 2.
M. Himmelfarb, “From
Ezekiel to the Book of the Watchers,” in: Ascent to Heaven,
Review: M. Himmelfarb, Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian
Apocalypses (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995); M.
Barker, The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and Its Influence on
Christianity (Nashville: Abingdon, 1988.
September 22: Early Enochic Apocalypses II: Animal Apocalypse
September 27: The Book of Daniel
Apocalyptic Imagination, ch.
J. Fitzmyer, S.J., "The New Testament Title ‘Son of Man’
Philologically Considered." In A Wandering Aramean: Collected Aramaic
Essays. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1979. pp. 143-60.
Wednesday, September 29: The Book of Daniel (cont.)
October 4: Ascents of the Patriarchs and Prophets: Moses
October 6: Ascents of the Patriarchs and Prophets: Baruch
October 11: Qumran: The Treatise of the Two Spirits
The Treatise of
the Two Spirits (Comminity Rule 1QS 3:13-4:26); 4Q Amram, 11QMelch.
García Martínez, “Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in: EncAp,
Collins, “The Mythology of the Holy War in Daniel and the Qumran War
Scroll: A Point of Transition in Jewish Apocalyptic,” VT 25
Apocalyptic Imagination, ch.
Books for Reviews: J.J. Collins,
Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls (London: Routledge, 1997); G. Boccaccini,
Beyond the Essene Hypothesis; Kobelski, Melchizedek and Melchiresha.
Wednesday, October 13: Qumran: Songs for the Sabbath Sacrifice
the Sabbath Sacrifice. Part I.
Fletcher-Louis, “The Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice,” in: C.
Fletcher-Louis, All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the
Dead Sea Scrolls (STDJ, 42; Leiden: Brill, 2002) 252-279.
Books for Review: C. Fletcher-Louis,
All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls
(STDJ, 42; Leiden: Brill, 2002); J. Davila,
Liturgical Works (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000); F.
García Martínez, Qumran and Apocalyptic (STDJ 9; Leiden: Brill,
1992); L. Schiffman,
The Eschatological Community of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Atlanta:
October 18: The Similitudes of Enoch
Wednesday, October 20:
Apocalyptic Imagination, ch.
7 (4 Ezra)
Stone, “Reactions to Destruction of the Second Temple: Theology,
Perception and Conversion,” Journal for the Study of Judaism 12:2
Stone, “On Reading an Apocalypse,” in: Mysteries and Revelations:
Apocalyptic Studies since the Uppsala Colloquium, 65-78.
Books for Review: M. Stone, Fourth
Ezra (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990).
October 25: Apocalypse of Abraham
7 (Apocalypse of Abraham)
Books for Review: R. Bauckham, The
Fate of the Dead. Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses (SNT,
93; Leiden: Brill, 1998).
October 27: 2 Enoch
November 1: Selected Themes in the Gospels/Acts
November 3: Apocalyptic Paul
2 Cor; Paul’s
Vision; Rabbinic Pardes Story;
C. Morray-Jones, ‘Paradise Revisited (2 Cor. 12:1-12). The Jewish Mystical
Backgrounds of Paul’s Apostolate’, HTR 86 (1993),
J. Tabor, Things Unutterable: Paul’s Ascent to Paradise in Its Greco-Roman,
Judaic, and Early Christian Contexts (Lanham, University Press of
America, 1986), pp. .
A. Segal, Paul the Convert: The Apostolate and Apostasy of Saul the
Pharisee (New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1990).
Books for Review:
A. Segal, Paul the Convert: The Apostolate and Apostasy of Saul
the Pharisee (New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1990).
November 8: The Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation 1-11
Collins, “The Book of Revelation,” in: EncApoc, 1.384-414.
Books for Reviews:
A. Y. Collins, The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation
(Harvard Dissertations in Religion, 9; Missouls, Mont.: Scholars, 1976);
A. Y. Collins,
Crisis and Catharsis: The Power of the Apocalypse (Philadelphia:
November 10: The Book of Revelation (cont)
November 15: Christian Trajectories: Ascension of Isaiah
Books for Reviews: J. Knight,
Disciples of the Beloved One: The Christology, Social Settings and
Theological Context of the Ascension of Isaiah (Sheffield: Sheffield
Academic Press, 1996); J. Knight, The
Ascension of Isaiah (Guides to Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha;
Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995); J. C. VanderKam and W. Adler,
The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early
Christianity (CRIANT, III.4; Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum;
Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996).
Books for Reviews: A. Segal,
Two Powers in Heaven: Early Rabbinic Reports About Christianity and
Gnosticism (SJLA, 25; Leiden: Brill,
1977); I. Gruenwaid,
Apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism (Leiden:
Brill, 1980); G. Scholem, Major
Trends in Jewish Mysticism (Jerusalem: Schocken Publishing House,
November 22: Andrei Orlov in San Antonio for AAR/SBL annual meeting
– No Class
November 24: Thanksgiving Holiday – No Class
Wednesday, December 8
Final Paper Due
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