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Academic Honesty Requires that You Document All Your Sources

Footnotes and Endnotes

(Chicago Manual/Turabian)


Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)

     This style of citation formatting is also called “Turabian,” after the author who wrote a popular handbook for undergraduates based on CMOS. For in-text citations, the CMOS manual lays out both a parenthetical author-date format like those of APA and APSA and a numbered footnote format, which is often preferred in the humanities. Both require an alphabetized list of references at the end of the paper. For contrasting examples of each type, see the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.

     The CMOS footnote system uses superscript numbers. These numbers should be placed at the end of the sentence (or clause) in which the cited material appears. Use your software's formatting menu to change the number to a superscript.

  • CMOS footnotes and endnotes should be detailed on first references; second and later references then take a short form that uses either the author’s name and a page number or the Latin term ibid and a page number if needed.

Ask your instructor what kind of notes you should use.

    1. Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page.
    2. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper.

Word-processing software supports either approach.


  • CMOS lists of references should be alphabetized by the author’s surname, and can be presented as a “Bibliography” page that includes all sources you consulted, or as a “References” or “Works Cited” page that includes only the sources in your footnotes.


Ask your instructor what your list of references should include—all the sources you consulted, or only those you cite in the paper?


Help with CMOS from Handbooks

The last print version of the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed., 2003) is available at the Raynor Reference desk and in the Memorial Library stacks. Note, however, that the online version is more up to date.  Furthermore, the highly detailed contents of the full manual are geared for editors and publishers, not undergraduates.


Paper copy of brief handbooks, such as the current First-Year English handbook, will help you focus on the most pertinent citation information, including formats for electronic and Internet sources.

You can also find helpful models for citing electronic sources in Father Francis Paul Prucha’s Research Papers in History, 5th ed. (2004), which is available in a PDF file for print or download.  This excellent CMOS resource is especially recommended for History students.

Online Help with CMOS citations is available through the following:

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Page Last Modified: October 18, 2018

  For suggestions and corrections, please email
Dr. Rebecca Nowacek, Associate Professor of English
Director of the Ott Memorial Writing Center, 240 Raynor Library (414.288.5542)
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