Research and Scholarship at MU

Native America Collections

Why Marquette? | FAQ  |  A-Z Index of Native America Collections |  Access and Services


Post-Columbian collections encompassing Indians/ Indigenous peoples of North and South America, including the Caribbean, Mexico and Central America.  Most relate to the Catholic Church and most focus on the United States since 1874.

Aspects of church work, from Catholic evangelistic work, Catholic (social) action, Catholic social teaching or Christian sociology, to pastoral ministry or theology prevail throughout most holdings.  Civil rights of indigenous peoples, economic justice, education, Christian inculturation in indigenous cultures, social reform, and government relations and accountability are widespread.  Extensive audio visual, photographic, and textual holdings present indigenous and Christian beliefs, practices, music, and oral testimony/histories among several ethnic groups.  A number of recordings and textual records feature indigenous languages, most of which are endangered, and many of which have translations.  Most holdings pertain to urban and rural people in the United States and former dependencies, especially the Dakota-Lakota, Inuit-Yupik (Eskimo), Ojibwa-Ottawa (Odawa), Apache-Navajo (Dené), and Piman (Akimel O'odham-Tohono O'odham) Indian peoples.  The records present the pioneering, spiritual, and social justice legacies of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha (Mohawk-Algonquin), Saint Katharine Drexel, Holy Nicholas Black Elk (Lakota), Père Jacques Marquette, S.J., Archbishop Charles J. Chaput, O.F.M. Cap. (Potawatomi), and other notables, as well as local history records by/about parishes, schools, communities, and racially mixed people.  A few notable collections include school attendance and/or sacramental records of genealogical value.

Why Marquette?

Catholic evangelization of the Americas' aboriginal Indian peoples is an ongoing story of epic proportions. It is a saga on spreading the Gospel for over 500 years and it is a struggle for peace and justice, cultural accommodation, and the development of indigenous Christian faith communities.

With its centralized bureaucracy, numerous religious orders and dioceses, and access to substantial financial resources, the Catholic Church has been able to maintain mission programs on an extraordinary scale. Moreover, a number of its missionaries, especially Jesuits, have had classical educations and linguistic training, which enabled them to create extensive writings on indigenous life and languages, especially as these related to the Church and interaction with officials of Church and state.

Mindful of its mission as a Catholic university, and recognizing the value and preservation needs of Church records pertaining to Native American peoples, the Marquette University Department of Special Collections and University Archives made a commitment to collect and preserve this unique heritage. Marquette actively solicits and makes accessible collections of organizational records, personal papers, oral histories, and audio/ visual recordings. Marquette also acquires individual photographs, newsletters, recordings, and other documentation pertaining to Native Catholic activities as well as the products of research that benefited from its collections. Of particular interest are notable "at risk" collections that otherwise might not be saved without outside intervention. Furthermore, the department may accept other compatible collections relating to indigenous peoples of the Americas.

As a Catholic, Jesuit, university, the Marquette Archives staff has access to diverse Catholic descriptive tools and comparable Native American ones as well.  This enables us to better identify the sometimes complex subjects from Catholic and Native American traditions documented in the records, photography, and recordings of the collections.

Deacon with pine boughs in his hands in Tekakwitha Conference procession, 
		  St. James Cathedral, Seattle Washington, 1993 Signing the Lord's Prayer in Plains Indian Sign Language at Tekakwitha 
		  Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, 1984
A deacon processed before Mass at the Tekakwitha Conference, St. James Cathedral, Seattle, Washington, 1993. Tekakwitha Conference Records, Anne M. Scheurman, photographer. Angel McFarland Sobotta (Nez Perce) signed the Lord's Prayer in Plains Indian Sign Language at the Tekakwitha Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, 1984. Tekakwitha Conference Records.

In 1977, the department became the repository for the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. Thereafter, it became the repository for the Tekakwitha Conference and/ or acquired more than 50 other collections, which collectively document Catholic evangelization, pastoral, and social justice concerns. More than 100 native peoples in Canada, Guatemala, Mexico, and the United States are represented in the collections. While English is the prevailing language in most collections, some records use other languages as well, e.g. Dakota [Lakota], French, German, Ojibwa, Spanish.

Furthermore, the general collection of Marquette's Raynor Memorial Libraries hold over 30,000 related titles.


Historic Directories: Many different types of directories, such as city directories, occupational and professional directories, ethnic directories, and church directories, were created for past reference purposes but remain useful as historical research tools. More information about Catholic Directories.

Catholic-related records about Native Americans at other repositories: Marquette's Guides to Catholic-Related Records about Native Americans in the United States describe the holdings of related archival records not at Marquette University. The entries for missions, parishes, dioceses, and the religious institutes (or orders) of men and women also include chronologies to illuminate involvement with Native Americans. Geographical listings divide the current repositories by country, region, and state, and a master subject index includes all Catholic and Native American groups identified in the records and all past and present institutions that have held the records. Native ethnic group (tribal) entries are followed by sub-entries listing only those repositories with record holdings of genealogical value. The Helps section of volume 5 also contains a listing of archival repositories of non-Catholic church records, a number of which contain genealogical value.

Genealogical records in the Marquette Archives: The Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions Records, Series 2-1 School Attendance Records, contain the bulk of the records on Native Americans and genealogy. Although these records are restricted by The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, patrons are invited to consult this comprehensive index to the students' surnames, BCIM Series 2-1 Surname Index; consult with an archivist about the records and to use them on-site with supervision; and/or to submit an Application for Genealogical Query, which will enable archives staff to search pertinent records on their behalf.  Patrons are also invited to consult Marquette's Guides to Catholic-Related Records about Native Americans in the United States; it features repository entries about archival records, some of which have genealogical value.

Marquette University's first students of color: Because the early Marquette University student records lack personal details, researching students' ethnicity requires outside sources and knowledge of university history. In 1907, the Milwaukee Medical College (now Medical College of Wisconsin) became the Marquette Medical School, and in 1908, the Milwaukee Law College became the Marquette Law School with alumni of both institutions declared Marquette alumni retroactively. In 1904, Josiah A. Powless (1871-1918) of the Oneida Nation (Wisconsin) graduated from the Milwaukee Medical College. Two African Americans, Horace S. Scurry (1865-1943) and Eugene Scott, attended the Milwaukee Law College before 1908 and 1911-1914 respectively, but they did not graduate. In 1926, Mabel Watson Raimey (1898-1986), also an African American, completed the Marquette Law School Evening Program and was recognized as an alumna.

Pictures in Native America collections: Marquette's digital collections present a representative sampling of its pre-1980 off-line photographic holdings about American Indians. Furthermore, pre and post-1980 images from several collections are used in PDF pictorial histories of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions and the Tekakwitha Conference that are linked to the respective history note pages of those descriptive inventories. All images (whether or not they are displayed online) are available through on-site visits and special requests with custom scanning as needed. For more information, click "Ask an Archivist".

Catholic Ladders: Several collections in the Marquette Archives contain Catholic ladder pictorial catechisms, related writings, and/or photography depicting them. More information: In the Spotlight - "Catholic Ladder" Pictorial Catechisms.

Reading Photographs: More information on reading and identifying historic photographs, especially those about Native Americans.

Past research: This list of published writings about Native Americans shows the past research conducted with Marquette University archival holdings.  For those considering or engaged in new projects, it presents prospective topics and secondary resources.  For more information, please ask an archivist.

Saint Kateri Tekakwitha: The Native America collections contain many photographs, writings, and recordings about St. Kateri and her Native American followers, a number of which appear in the book, Native Footsteps along the Path of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha (Marquette University Press with the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 2012), and the video, The Legacy of Saint Kateri Tekakwitha (2013). To learn more about the collections, use keywords "Kateri" or "Tekakwitha" in "Search the Collections" and "Digital Collections". For further information, click "Ask an Archivist" and see the St. Kateri Tekakwitha resource list for K-12 educators.

Black Elk: One native sainthood candidate whose life is perhaps the best documented is Nicholas William Black Elk, Sr., an Oglala Lakota healer and catechist from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota whose life has inspired many to follow in his footsteps. This video, The Life and Holiness of Nicholas Black Elk, Our Brother in Jesus Christ (with illustrated text and credits and endnotes) and a handout, present a variety of resources from many collections and sources in the Marquette Archives and elsewhere.

When the Saints Go Marching In: A history of canonization with lessons learned from causes, past and present, with an emphasis on those pertaining to African and Native Americans (2015).

Painting of St. Kateri Tekakwitha by Claude Chauchetiere SJ

Painting Father Marquette and the Indians by Wilhelm Lamprecht

Holy Man Nicholas Black Elk wearing War Bonnet 1937
St. Kateri Tekakwitha attributed to Claude Chauchetiere, S.J., ca. 1685. "Father Marquette and the Indians" by Wilhelm Lamprecht, 1869. Nicholas William Black Elk by W. Ben Hunt, 1937.


Access and Services

Marquette welcomes public use of its collections. However, for optimum service, patrons are invited to consult with the archivist before their first use of Marquette materials and thereafter as needed. All original items must be used in the department's reading room whereas most microfilm and many publications and recordings may be borrowed through interlibrary loan. To insure the immediate availability of materials and audiovisual equipment, appointments are advised for all on-site research. Restricted materials are subject to special regulations and are not available through interlibrary loan.

Service Hours: Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and evening and weekend hours by appointment. Photographic identification is required for access to the Raynor Memorial Libraries. For more information see General Information and Services and contact:

Mark G. Thiel, CA (Certified Archivist), Archivist
Pronunciation: Teel

Marquette University
Department of Special Collections and University Archives
R360 John P. Raynor, S.J., Library
1355 W. Wisconsin Ave.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233

Raynor Memorial Libraries
P.O. Box 3141
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201-3141

Telephone: (414) 288-5904
Fax: (414) 288-6709


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