Department Recommendations by Problem Area

The Marquette ADVANCE Team worked to compile recommendations for Departments and Department Chairs based on themes found from the 2020 Climate Study. Many of the recommendations are repeated between areas as many issues intersect and interact.  

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Value Perceptions

  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.
  • Develop a policy statement to identify how research, teaching, and service are valued towards P&T.
  • Encourage faculty to collaborate; monetarily reward papers published and grants submitted collaboratively.

Department chairs should:

  • Institute annual monetary awards for research, teaching, and service in the department, including collaborative work.
  • Create an instrument to assess “Value Perception” in the department, and then report annually to the dean.

Organizational Diversity Climate

  • Develop a policy statement committing to the use of equitable practices in department decisions and operations.
  • Recognize and value the work of everyone and ensure that diverse perspectives are valued.
  • Encourage faculty and staff to report incivility instances; document and hold accountable offenders.

Department chairs should:

  • Help employees develop the skills they need to communicate effectively and resolve conflict across differences (e.g., require faculty to attend the “Implicit Bias Workshop for Search Committees” at Marquette).
  • Schedule at least one faculty and staff meeting a year specifically focused on discussing the work environment and solicit feedback about ways to improve it.
  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.

Equitable Practices

  • Provide training on transparent leadership practices for department chair, assistant chair, and other leadership positions. This training should include instruction on how to lead discussions that allow for all perspectives, how to seek out advice in equitable ways (not through closed door meetings with other high-level individuals), and how to encourage transparency in decisions from teaching and service assignments, etc.
  • Require faculty to attend the “Implicit Bias Workshop for Search Committees,” and require other implicit bias training for department members.
  • Examine department committees to make sure that a diversity of voices is represented and to ensure that workload of service work is divided equitably among all groups of faculty.
  • Assess whether teaching loads are equitably, fairly and appropriately distributed, and ensure that access to this information is available to all faculty. 

Department chairs should:

  • Develop, along with department members, department standards with regards to teaching and service loads, including advising and mentoring. All faculty members should be subject to the same expectations.
  • Track (by using agreed upon, defined metrics) and report annually the resulting data to faculty to ensure transparency of decision making.
  • Conduct annual salary pay equity reviews to ensure fair and equitable compensation and communicate this practice and outcomes to faculty.
  • Examine and measure resource allocation annually. Chairs should ensure that transparent and fair policies exist for faculty to access necessary resources and to make sure these policies are followed. Chairs should also provide open and honest communication about how they make decisions and allocate resources.

Integration of Differences

  • Provide training on transparent leadership practices for department chair, assistant chair, and other leadership positions. This training should include instruction on how to lead discussions that allow for all perspectives, how to seek out advice in equitable ways (not through closed door meetings with other high-level individuals), and how to encourage transparency in decisions from teaching and service assignments, etc.
  • Create an atmosphere where all voices are welcome and equally encouraged and acknowledged.
  • Ensure that everyone has a chance to voice opinions or concerns at department meetings.
  • Acknowledge and attribute ideas, suggestions, and comments accurately.
  • Recognize and value the work of everyone and ensure that diverse perspectives are valued.
  • Assess department administrative infrastructure and flow of decision making to identify points that allow for feedback and dialogue.

Inclusion in Decision Making

  • Provide training on transparent leadership practices for department chair, assistant chair, and other leadership positions. This training should include instruction on how to lead discussions that allow for all perspectives, how to seek out advice in equitable ways (not through closed door meetings with other high-level individuals), and how to encourage transparency in decisions from teaching and service assignments, etc.
  • Create an atmosphere where all voices are welcome and equally encouraged and acknowledged.
  • Ensure that everyone has a chance to voice opinions or concerns at department meetings.
  • Acknowledge and attribute ideas, suggestions, and comments accurately.

Department chairs should:

  • Consult all department members by asking for their input, thoughts, and feedback when making department-wide decisions.
  • Explain the reasoning behind the decision and how department feedback factored into the decisions.
  • Create pathways to the chairs, thereby providing a channel for feedback and encouraging conversation.

Engagement

  • Work actively towards creating an atmosphere where all voices are solicited, equally encouraged, and acknowledged. At department meetings welcome and entertain all perspectives and opinions. Close attention should be paid to the voices from minority groups, making sure their perspectives, experiences and contributions are included and equally valued.
  • Celebrate publicly the successes and achievements of the faculty, staff and students in the department. Be clear and frequent when communicating the value and strengths an individual member brings to the department.

Department chairs should:

  • Model civil and respectful interactions, such as greeting all faculty and staff pleasantly, making requests politely, and thanking faculty and staff for work performed even when the work is part of their job expectations.
  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.
  • Be encouraged to engage faculty and staff in departmental conversations on topics which impact their effectiveness and sense of fulfillment, such as work-life balance issues or concerns.

Belongingness

  • Include all groups in department discussions and decision making, when possible. This should include TT/T faculty, NTT faculty, staff, graduate and undergraduate students, and where appropriate, those with voting rights.
  • Encourage all faculty and staff to welcome and support new members of the department and create occasions for socials and relaxation together to grow a sense of community and inclusion.

Department chairs should:

  • Create opportunities and a welcoming environment for faculty to share their concerns and issues.
  • Listen respectfully to why department members may not feel that Marquette is supporting or can support their success, sense of belonginess and professional fulfillment.
  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.

Organizational Support of Work Life Balance

  • Schedule meetings between 9:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. This time period respects personal life responsibilities.
  • Develop flexible solutions to accommodate family and personal life responsibilities.
  • Allow faculty and staff to suggest solutions to work-life conflicts they are experiencing and learn about accommodations other departments have made in similar situations.
  • Provide childcare during conferences and evening events. 

Department chairs should:

Career Support

  • Create a mentoring program by pairing senior faculty with junior tenure-track faculty.
  • Extend mentorship program to associate professors who may be paired with full professors.
  • Encourage senior faculty to engage and include junior faculty as co-PIs on grant submissions.

Department chairs should:

  • Regularly discuss career development options (e.g., internal grants, summer support, service opportunities, etc.).
  • Create an instrument to assess “Career Support” in the department and report to the dean annually.

Gender Bias

Department chairs should:

  • Do an equity review to ensure that service (department, college and university) and teaching assignments (including types of classes: service vs elective courses, large vs small classes, etc.) are distributed equally. Consider creating a document to track committee and teaching assignments to ensure equity. Careful attention should be paid to invisible labor that is more common for women and faculty from under-represented groups.
  • Provide written, transparent documentation of expectations for service, teaching, and research and ensure that all faculty members are subject to the same expectations in the three areas for annual reviews and P&T reviews.
  • Watch the Institute for Women’s Leadership (IWL) Pay Equity Series and conduct annual salary pay equity reviews to ensure fair and equitable compensation. Communicate this practice and outcomes to faculty. Pay Equity Series // Institute for Women's Leadership // Marquette University
  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.

Experienced Incivility

Department chairs should:

  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.
  • Help employees develop the skills they need to effectively communicate, resolve conflict across differences (e.g., require faculty to attend the “Implicit Bias Workshop for Search Committees” at Marquette).
  • Issue a statement to the department establishing the expectation that all members treat each other with dignity and respect and that inequitable treatment and unkind behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Schedule at least one staff and faculty meeting a year specifically focused on discussing the work environment and solicit feedback about ways to improve it.

Turnover Intention

  • Recognize and value the work of the department members. Make sure to value diverse perspectives and skills faculty bring to the department.
  • Celebrate publicly the successes and achievements of the faculty and be clear and frequent when communicating the value and strengths an individual faculty member brings to the department.
  • Assign and support each new faculty member with a mentor, a more senior (tenured) member of the department, to help them navigate the stresses and demands of a new faculty position and to establish their research program. Encourage faculty to take advantage of other mentoring programs the campus may have to offer.

Department chairs should:

  • Create opportunities for department members to interact (e.g., social events, team-building activities) to increase opportunities for connectivity, community-building, and reduced isolation.
  • Create opportunities and welcoming environments for faculty to share their concerns and issues and to respectfully listen to why an individual may not feel that Marquette is supporting or can support their success, sense of belonginess and professional fulfillment.

Workload Inequality

  • Provide training on transparent leadership practices for department chair, assistant chair, and other leadership positions. This training should include instruction on how to lead discussions that allow for all perspectives, how to seek out advice in equitable ways (not through closed door meetings with other high-level individuals), and how to encourage transparency in decisions from teaching and service assignments, etc.
  • Track committee assignments to ensure equity and that a diversity of voices is represented. Moreover, pay close attention to invisible labor and whether it is valued and rewarded in annual merit reviews and P&T.
  • Assess whether teaching loads are equitably, fairly, and appropriately distributed, and ensure that access to this information is available to all faculty.

Department chairs should:

  • Develop, with faculty input, department standards with regards to teaching and service loads. The connection between these loads and P&T should be clearly articulated within the department.
  • Track (using agreed upon, defined metrics) and report the resulting data on research, teaching and service to the faculty on an annual basis to ensure transparency of decision making and of workload.
  • Examine departmental and college committees to ensure that service assignments are appropriately and equitably distributed.

Emotional Exhaustion

  • Be sensitive and aware that faculty who are experiencing emotional exhaustion and burnout may feel less effective and fulfilled in their work.
  • Practice compassion, grace and patience with colleagues who are experiencing emotional exhaustion. Take time to connect with colleagues to ask what would be helpful and how you may be of support to them.
  • Respect everyone’s time; encourage and model a culture of work-life balance. Make every effort to reduce the number of “non-essential” meetings in the department.
  • Provide clear agendas for meetings in advance, adhere to scheduled meeting times, and avoid scheduling meetings early mornings and late afternoon/evenings.
  • Review P&T guidelines and annual reviews to ensure that requirements are reasonable, can be measured for fairness and equity, and do not result in burnout in employees.
  • Make transparent the documentation of work in all areas from teaching, service and research. Close attention should be paid to invisible labor and whether it is valued and rewarded in annual merit reviews and P&T.

Department chairs should:

  • Make every effort to acknowledge and publicly praise members of the department on their accomplishments and contributions. The overall functioning and success of a department is a team effort and individuals deserve to know their contributions are recognized, appreciated, and valued.
  • Develop, together with their faculty, department standards with regards to teaching and service loads and ensure equity of workloads. Make sure all assigned workloads are manageable and that expectations are clear and reasonable.

Resources (can be used to impact all areas)

  • Newly created networks across departments to share resources, advice, and ideas.
  • Cross-cultural awareness and diversity training
  • Bystander Training
  • Leadership and communication skills training
  • The Academic Unit Diagnostic Tool (AUDiT) from the National Center for Professional & Research Ethics (NCPRE) to engage periodically in self-evaluation to assess improvement. ADVANCE can complete meetings with department chairs or executive committees (as appropriate) to outline strategies to address climate issues.
  • Mentoring programs that support faculty (proposed in ADVANCE Grant)
  • The “Advocates & Allies” effort of the ADVANCE Program. Encourage men faculty to attend the “How to Become and Effective Ally Workshop.” https://www.marquette.edu/innovation/advance-advocates-allies.php
  • The Marquette implicit bias training workshop, held in each department, or members must be required to attend. https://www.marquette.edu/diversity/diversity-hiring-resources-phase2.php
  • The Marquette “Implicit Bias Workshop for Search Committees.” Required for faculty.
  • The Marquette “Moving Beyond Boundaries” lecture, organized by the ADVANCE Program, where people from other successful ADVANCE programs are invited to present on their best practices.
  • For department chairs, specific workshops organized during the Office of Faculty Affairs chairs program.

Faculty should read the following relevant literature resources to educate themselves on issues and best strategies to combat them:


 

Annotated Bibliography

Browse a selection of literature on the topics of supporting women and under-represented faculty in STEM and SBE fields.

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 Allyship and Mentoring

Cheng, S., Ng, L., Trump-Steele, R. C. E., Corrington, A., & Hebl, M. (2018). Calling on Male Allies to Promote Gender Equity in I-O Psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 11(3), 389–398. Link to Article

  • From the article: “In this commentary, we define allyship, discuss the importance of male allies, suggest ways in which male allies can help promote gender equity in I-O psychology, and consider potential barriers to male allyship and ways to overcome them.”

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science. (2019). Want black women students to stay in STEM? Help them find role models who look like them. ScienceDaily. Link to Article

  • This article focuses more on the experiences of students and argues that if we want black women students to stay in STEM careers, having women who share their racial identities as role models at the undergraduate level is key in order to promote a sense of belonging.

Johnson, B. (2017). How to be an ally to new minority scholars. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Link to Article

  • This article begins by highlighting the importance of mentoring for the lives and careers of new scholars. The article then transitions to emphasizing the importance of white faculty mentors in becoming more “deliberate and effective cross-race mentors” and provides advice on how to do so effectively.

Barriers to Acheving Tenure 

Boatright-Horowitz, S. L. & Soeung, S. (2009). Teaching white privilege to white students can mean saying good-bye to positive student evaluations. American Psychologist, 574-575. Link to Article

  • A short article on the difficulties that instructors may face when teaching racism and white privilege to white students.

Bradley, C., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2004). African American Counselor Educators: Their Experiences, Challenges, and Recommendations. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43(4), 258–273. Link to Article

  • This article concludes that African American counselor educators perceived publishing, colleague’s racism, and lack of mentoring as major barriers to the attainment of promotion and tenure.

Gruber, J., Mendle, J., Lindquist, K. A., Schmader, T., Clark, L. A., Bliss-Moreau, E., … Williams, L. A. (2020). The future of women in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1-34. Link to Article

  • This article discusses 10 topics relevant for women’s career advancement in psychological science with a focus on issues that have been studied empirically and a discussion that is centered on evidence that is both within and outside the field of psychology.

Lab, S. C. (2020). Racial Inequality in Psychological Research: Trends of the Past and Recommendations for the Future. Link to Article

  • This article looked through over 26,000 empirical studies that were published in top-tier cognitive, developmental, and social psychology journals between 1974 and 2018 with the aim to document how many of these articles discuss race.

Stark, P., & Freishtat, R. (2014). An Evaluation of Course Evaluations. ScienceOpen Research. Link to Article 

  • This article argues that the practice of relying on student teaching evaluation scores as the primary measure of teaching effectiveness for promotion and tenure decisions should be abandoned for “substantive and statistical reasons.” 

Climate and Inclusivity

Ahmad, A. S. (2020). A survival guide for Black, Indigenous, and other women of color in Academe.The Chronicle of Higher Education. Link to Article

  • This article offers advice to BIPOC women in academia on how to identify racism and gaslighting, as well as advice on how these women can care for their own wellbeing.

Alfred, M. V., Ray, S. M., & Johnson, M. A. (2018). Advancing Women of Color in STEM: An Imperative for U.S. Global Competitiveness. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 21(1), 114–132. Link to Article

  • This article seeks to address the issue of the absence of women of color in STEM by understanding the factors that both hinder and support their career development from early childhood experiences to experiences in the workplace.

Bilimoria, D., Joy, S., & Liang, X. (2008). Breaking barriers and creating inclusiveness: Lessons of organizational transformation to advance women faculty in academic science and engineering. Human Resource Management, 47(3), 423–441. Link to Article

  • This article emphasizes the importance of representation and the participation of women and provides a guideline to breaking down barriers and improve prevailing structures. The highlight of this article is the recommendations that it makes for institutional transformation as well as the recommendation for HR practitioners and organizational leaders in academia.

Chatelain, M., Early, G., Blaine, K. N., Clair, M., Emily, B., Bradley, S. M., … Foley, N. F. (2019). Being a Black academic in America. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Link to Article

  • This article compiles a series of interviews of African American graduate students, junior faculty, and senior faculty on what it’s like to be a Black academic today. More specifically, these academics were asked to discuss this topic through the lens of the recent admissions-bribery scandal.

Delapp, R. C. T. & Williams M. T. (2015). Professional challenges facing African American psychologists: The presence and impact of racial microaggressions. Professional & Legislative Issues, 101-105. Link to Article

  • The article discusses how racial microaggressions are commonplace and dealing with these experiences are an extra burden that African American psychologists have to carry as they navigate the realms of academia. 

Eberhardt, J. L. (2020). Biased: Uncovering the hidden prejudice that shapes what we see, think and do. Penguin Random House. Link to Book

  • Description: “From one of the world’s leading experts on unconscious racial bias come stories, science, and strategies to address one of the central controversies of our time.”

Gupta, S. (2015). Study: 100% of women of color in STEM experience bias. Fortune. Link to Article

  • This article centers around a study conducted by Dr. Joan Williams who interviewed 60 women of color in STEM and surveyed 557 other women (of all races). From the findings, 100% of the women of color reported experiencing gender bias, while 93% of white women reported experiencing gender bias.

Harper, S. R. (2012). Race without racism: How higher education researchers minimize racist institutional norms. The Review of Higher Education, 36(1S), 9–29. Link to Article

  • This article argues that in order to advance beyond the racial disparities that exist within institutions of higher education towards a version that is truly equitable and inclusive, we must acknowledge racism and its harmful effects on people in higher education. The findings in the article support the notion that most higher education researchers have attempted to account for the existing racial disparities without taking into consideration racist institutional practices that undermine equity and diversity.

Johnson, L., Thomas, K. M., & Brown, L. (2017). Women of color in the STEM academic workplace. In J. Ballenger, B. Polnick, & B. Irby (Eds.), Women of color in STEM: Navigating the workforce. (pp. 39–56). IAP Information Age Publishing. Link to Book

  • This article is a chapter from the book titled “Women of Color in STEM: Navigating the workforce in which the authors frame the “experiences of women of color in STEM workplaces within the context of being highly underrepresented workers.” 

LaCosse, J., Sekaquaptewa, D., & Bennett, J. (2016). STEM Stereotypic Attribution Bias Among Women in an Unwelcoming Science Setting. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(3), 378–397. Link to Article

  • The article argues that those interested in increasing retention of women in STEM majors should develop strategies designed to reduce internal attributions for women’s setbacks among women facing negative STEM environments and should cultivate a more positive climate for women in STEM fields.

Mercado-Lopez, L. (2020). Want to retain faculty of color? Support them as faculty of color. Medium. Link to Article

  • The author of this article makes a call to action for universities to recognize, endorse, and invest in faculty of color as faculty of color. The author argues that currently, academia celebrates the presence of non-white people until the moment those people share what they understand about to the institution operates, and that valuing faculty of color means to change the language about them from “having diverse perspectives” to “embodying critical knowledges.”

Ong, M., Smith, J. M., & Ko, L. T. (2017). Counter spaces for women of color in STEM higher education: Marginal and central spaces for persistence and success. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55, 206–245. Link to Article

  • From the abstract: “This article explores the struggles of women of color that threaten their persistence in STEM education and how those struggles lead them to search out or create counterspaces (safe spaces)." It also examines the ways that counterspaces operate for women of color in STEM higher education, particularly how they function as havens from isolation and microaggressions.

Pittman, C. T. (2010). Exploring how African American faculty cope with classroom racial stressors. The Journal of Negro Education, 79, 66-78. Link to Article

  • This study examined how African American faculty discussed coping strategies with racially stressful classroom in a series of focus groups. The study found that these faculty members coped by creating a safe space for students, adopting assertive actions in the classroom to establish themselves as an authority, questioning the thinking of their students, and focusing on their learning goals for students.

Sekaquaptewa, D. (2019). Gender-based microaggressions in STEM settings. NCID Currents, 1(1). Link to Article

  •  This article seeks to inform and raise awareness of the gender-based microaggressions that can often manifest in STEM setting. 

COVID-19 Considerations

Andersen, J. P., Nielsen, M. W., Simone, N. L., Lewiss, R. E., & Jagsi, R. (2020). COVID-19 medical papers have fewer women first authors than expected. eLife, 9. Link to Article

  • This article re-emphasizes the fact that this pandemic has not men and women researchers equally. Based on the number of medical manuscripts submitted, it is concluded that research productivity for women, especially junior faculty women, have been affected more by the current pandemic.

Goodwin, S. A., & Mitchneck, B. (2020). STEM equity and inclusion (un)interrupted? Inside Higher Ed. Link to Article

  • This article argues that a failure to respond to the negative impact that this pandemic has on the careers of women in STEM could potentially undo years of progress that has been made towards equity among faculty.

Kibbe, M. R. (2020). Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Manuscript Submissions by Women. JAMA Surgery. Link to Article

  • This article outlines how the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the disparity that has long existed where women assumed more of the household and childcare duties and how this has affected women in academia.

Myers, K. R., Yang Tham, W., Yin, Y., Cohodes, N., Thursby, J. G., Schiffer, P., … Wang, D. (2020). Unequal effects of the COVID*19 pandemic on scientists. Nature Human Behaviour. Link to Article

  • This article seeks to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting researchers. The authors received 4,500 survey responses from US and Europe based researchers that revealed “a clear pattern on who is cutting back their research the most.” While it is true that the pandemic has cut work hours for most researchers, the scientists caring for young children reported the steepest declines in research productivity.

Power, K. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and policy, 16(1), 67-73. Link to Article

  • This article makes the argument that the increased care burden of women and families that has been brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic will last for years if no interventions are implemented.

Intersectional Considerations

Dozier, R. (2015). A view from the academe: Lesbian and gay faculty and minority stress. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(2), 188–198. Link to Article

  • This article sought to understand the experiences of lesbian and gay faculty members. Using minority stress theory as the theoretical framework, the authors held a series of in-depth interviews that focused on “prejudicial events, how individuals interpreted discriminatory events, and the internal and external strategies used by participants to cope with minority stressors.”

Jean-Marie, G., Williams, V. A., & Sherman, S. L. (2009). Black Women’s Leadership Experiences: Examining the Intersectionality of Race and Gender. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(5), 562–581. Link to Article

  • This article uses critical race theory and Afrocentric epistemological framework to explore the experienced of black women leaders. Focusing on their intersectional experiences, the article finds that although each of these women have unique experiences, they have all encountered the same patterns of institutional racism and sexism.

Lloyd-Jones, B. (2009). Implications of Race and Gender in Higher Education Administration: An African American Woman’s Perspective. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(5), 606–618. Link to Article

  • This study is a qualitative single case study that examines the experience of an African American woman senior level administrator and a research university. The findings of the study are used to argue that woman of color who hold high-ranking positions within academia continue to experience social inequity as a result of their intersectional identities.

McZeal Walters, N. (2018). Trump's America is making microaggressions an even greater reality for women faculty of color: an African American faculty member's lived experiences. Women, Gender, and Families of Color, 6(1), 63-68. Link to Article

  • This article makes that argument that “Trump’s America is making microaggressions an even greater reality for women faculty of color on America’s college and university campuses.” This new reality paired with the continuously increasing presence of black women on college and university campuses underscores the importance of understanding the lived experience of women faculty of color.

Ong, M. (2017). Experiences of intersectionality for women of color in STEM: Individual and institutional strategies for persistence and success [Video]. Link to Video

  • In this video, Dr. Ong discusses her research on the intersectionality of women of color that result in experiences of isolation and microaggressions. Dr. Ong argues that these experiences contribute to the underrepresentation of women of color in stem and discusses various strategies to increase their participation, retention, and advancement that can be utilized both at the individual level and at the institutional level.

Remedios, J. D., & Snyder, S. H. (2018). Intersectional Oppression: Multiple Stigmatized Identities and Perceptions of Invisibility, Discrimination, and Stereotyping. Journal of Social Issues, 74(2), 265–281. Link to Article

  • This article discusses the findings of the survey-based research study that asked participant with varying degrees of stigmatized identities (0 – 3) about their experiences in regard to feeling invisible, receiving unfair treatment, and stereotyping. The article discusses how those with multiple stigmatized identities are “keenly aware of their invisibility, which then represents a source of perceived discrimination and stereotyping.”

Turner, C. S. V., González, J. C., & Wong (Lau), K. (2011). Faculty women of color: The critical nexus of race and gender. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 4(4), 199–211. Link to Article

  • This article seeks to answer the question “what are the lived experiences of faculty women of color in predominantly white institutions?” through a series of focus groups with women of color from a wide range of fields. Critical Race Theory and Critical Race Feminism were used to guide the analysis.

Warner, L. R. (2008). A Best Practices Guide to Intersectional Approaches in Psychological Research. Sex Roles, 59(5-6), 454–463. Link to Article

  • This paper seeks to serve as a “best practices guide” for scholars who are looking to apply intersectionality theory into psychological research. The author highlights three central issues regarding the use of intersectionality theory in research and how to address them.

Measures and Self-Assessment

Griffin, K., Mabe, A., & Bennett, J. (2020). A Guidebook for a Campus Self-Assessment of Successes and Challenges in STEM Faculty Diversity and Inclusion. Link to Article

  • This article is a guidebook created to serve as a resource for campuses looking to engage in self-assessment regarding the success and challenges in STEM faculty diversity and inclusion. This article summarizes the scholarship and best practices that guide an institutional model for increasing faculty diversity. It also provides instructions on how to complete a campus self-assessment and provides practical advice.

Tran, N., Hayes, R. B., Ho, I. K., Crawford, S. L., Chen, J., Ockene, J. K., … Pbert, L. (2019). Perceived Subtle Gender Bias Index: Development and Validation for Use in Academia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(4), 509–525. Link to Article

  • An article on the development and validation of the Perceived Subtle Gender Bias Index. This index is designed to provide researchers with a tool that does not require participants to label an event as a gender bias incident.

Recruitment, Hiring, and Retention

Caruso, C., Wang, X., Jacobs, S., Drotos, K., & Gregory, R. (2020). Promoting equity, diversity, inclusion, and wellness in faculty hiring. University of Guelph. Link to Article

  • This article provides a guideline on how to implement best practices to attract and identify the best candidates for faculty positions with a large focus on identifying existing biases within the hiring process. Uniquely, this article also highlights the importance of taking into consideration the mental wellness of potential candidates by not putting them through a “grueling” interview process that tests their mental and emotional endurance rather than their professional qualities.

Division of Equity and Inclusion. (2020). Best practices for improving faculty diversity recruitment and retention. University of Oregon. Link to Article

  • This article is an excerpt of the “Best practices for improving faculty diversity recruitment and retention” chapter in the book titled “The Chief Diversity Officer: Strategy, Structure, and Change Management.” This chapter outlines 5 major barriers and how to address them.

Greene, P. (2018). Advice for attracting and retaining diverse faculty members (opinion). Inside Higher Ed. Link to Article

  • This is an opinion piece from Inside Higher Ed that discusses the experiences of a diversity officer from a university in New York. This article highlights the importance of actively recruiting faculty of color, rather than passively taking them into consideration when they apply. This article also emphasizes the importance of the work that needs to be done to retain faculty of color, arguing that it is moot point to recruit diverse faculty of color if we are not working to keep them once they are here.

Moshiri, F., & Cardon, P. W. (2018). Best practices to increase racial diversity in business schools: What actually works according to a nationwide survey of business schools. Journal of Education for Business, 94(2), 113–124. Link to Article

  • This article uniquely focuses on best practices to increasing racial diversity in business schools. The areas of best practices include diversity priorities, strategic planning, outreach to underrepresented communities, administrative structures, and diversity training. The article argues that authority structures which have been proven to work in business, also work in academia.

Office of Access and Equal Opportunity. (NA). Best practices for recruiting and retaining diverse faculty and staff. University of Illinois, Springfield. Link to Article

  • This article begins by highlighting the importance of hiring and including diverse faculty as well as the importance of representation in higher education. The article argues that understanding the campus climate and knowing whether or not this climate is welcoming to diverse faculty is vital. This article provides a short list of actionable items towards recruiting and retaining diverse faculty.

Office of the Deputy Provost for Research and Minority Issues. (2015). Promising practices for recruiting and retaining diverse faculty. University of Chicago. Link to Article

  • From the article: “This document describes steps for conducting successful searches, remembering that thoughtful, targeted outreach beyond advertising is essential to our efforts to recruit the most talented academics to the University. Recognizing that efforts to increase faculty diversity require proactive, long-term, and sustainable plans, the intent of this document is to provide promising practices that will support UChicago’s efforts.”

Romero, A. (2017). Best practices for recruiting and retaining diverse faculty for institutions of higher education. Baruch College. Link to Article

  • This article provides a list of 10 detailed best practices for recruiting and retaining diverse faculty. Items range from a campus climate assessment, to funding initiatives, to leadership opportunities for diverse faculty. This article also includes a link to organizations that provide resources to enhance diversity and inclusion efforts as well as a link to publication on similar topics. 

Sallee, M. W. (2007). A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies. Innovative Higher Education, 32(4), 181–194. Link to Article

  • This article discussion how feminist theories can help to inform parental leave policies and provides an example of what an ideal parental leave policy might look like based on these theories. The abstract states that this article provides the tools to help create theoretically informed policy. 

Sensoy, Ö., & Diangelo, R. (2017). “We are all for diversity, but . . .”: How faculty hiring committees reproduce whiteness and practical suggestions for how they can change. Harvard Educational Review, 87(4), 557–580. Link to Article

  • This article focuses on the faculty hiring process to identify the most common practices that block the hiring of diverse faculty and “protect Whiteness and offers constructive alternative practices to guide hiring committees in their work to realize the institution’s commitment to diversity.”

Smith, J. L., Handley, I. M., Rushing, S., Belou, R., Shanahan, E. A., Skewes, M. C., … Intemann, K. (2018). Added benefits: How supporting women faculty in STEM improves everyone’s job satisfaction. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 11(4), 502–517. Link to Article

  • This paper mainly focuses on the overall improvement in job satisfaction experienced by everyone when women faculty in STEM feel supported. However, these findings were the result of a designed and tested gender-diversity program that was informed by self-determination theory. The article explains in detail how the program supported women faculty’s psychological need for autonomy, relatedness, and competence through their involvement in five activities from their ADVANCE initiatives.

Tower, L. E., & Dilks, L. M. (2015). Work/life satisfaction policy in ADVANCE universities: Assessing levels of flexibility. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 8(3), 157–174. Link to Article

  • This article analysis the work/life policies at 124 NSF ADVANCE institutions in 9 separate categories that include dual career support, tenure clock extensions, and tuition remission. With the understanding that work/life satisfaction polices are critical to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty, this article highlights the importance of implementing progressive policies as well as providing recommendations as to where progressive universities can still improve.

Welch, J. L., Wiehe, S. E., Palmer-Smith, V., & Dankoski, M. E. (2011). Flexibility in Faculty Work-Life Policies at Medical Schools in the Big Ten Conference. Journal of Women’s Health, 20(5), 725–732. Link to Article

  • This paper compares the flexibility of faculty work-life polices of medical schools and compares them to the policies of other schools in order to bring awareness to the disparities that exist between women and men in advancement, retention, and in securing leadership positions. This article centers around the importance of policies that are supportive of flexible work-life integration, arguing that these polices will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty.

Training and Workshops

Carnes, M., Devine, P. G., Baier Manwell, L., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., Ford, C. E., … Sheridan, J. (2015). The Effect of an Intervention to Break the Gender Bias Habit for Faculty at One Institution. Academic Medicine, 90(2), 221–230. Link to Article

  • This article discusses the findings of a “pair-matched, single-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled study of a gender bias habit-changing intervention at a large public university.” Faculty from 92 departments at UW-Madison participated in the study where faculty in the experimental group took part in a 2.5-hour long habit changing gender bias intervention workshop.

Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Austin, A. J., & Cox, W. T. L. (2012). Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(6), 1267–1278. Link to Article

  • This article outlines the development of a “multi-faceted prejudice habit-breaking intervention” that aims to reduce implicit racial bias long term. In this intervention, race bias is treated like a habit that can be broken through a “combination of awareness, concern about the effect of the bias, and the application of strategies to reduce bias.” The results of a 12-week longitudinal study showed that people who received this intervention showed dramatic results.

Devine, P. G., Forscher, P. S., Cox, W. T. L., Kaatz, A., Sheridan, J., & Carnes, M. (2017). A gender bias habit-breaking intervention led to increased hiring of female faculty in STEMM departments. Link to Article

  • This article sought to examine the hiring rates of both STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Medical) and non-STEMM departments after receiving a gender bias habit changing intervention. The study found that the proportion of women hired by control departments remained stable over time, the proportion of women hired by departments that received the intervention increased by 19 percent. 

Eberhardt, J. L. (2020). How racial bias works – and how to disrupt it [TED Talk]. Link to TED Talk

  • From the video description “In this powerful talk, psychologist Jennifer L. Eberhardt explores how our biases unfairly target Black people at all levels of society -- from schools and social media to policing and criminal justice -- and discusses how creating points of friction can help us actively interrupt and address this troubling problem.”

Sekaquaptewa, D., Takahashi, K., Malley, J., Herzog, K., & Bliss, S. (2019). An evidence-based faculty recruitment workshop influences departmental hiring practice perceptions among university faculty. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 38(2), 188–210. Link to Article

  • This article outlines two studies conducted to test the individual and department level impact of a faculty recruitment workshop centered around evidence based equitable hiring practices, specifically regarding gender diversity in STEM. While the article primarily discusses the two studies conducted and their outcomes, the article also provides detailed information regarding the workshop itself that can be used to inform the creation and implementation of future workshops.

Featured Articles

Boosting the Sustainable Representation of Women in STEM With Evidence-Based Policy Initiatives

Moss-Racusin, C. A., Pietri E. S., van der Toorn, J., & Ashburn-Nardo L.

This articles argues that in order boost women’s sustainable representation (their lasting, substantial presence and valued engagement) in STEM fields, we need evidence-based policy to shift organizational and culture.  

 "Creating a Trans-Inclusive Workplace" 
Christian N. Thoroughgood, Katina B. Sawyer, and Jennica R. Webster

A Harvard Business Review Top 10 Must-Read Article of 2021, written in part by Dr. Jennica Webster, ADVANCE Implementation Team Member and Institute of Women's Leadership Co-Director.  


 

Picture a Scientist Film Now Available Online

If you missed our screening of the Picture a Scientist film last fall, it is now available to screen for free on PBS.