Marquette Activity


REGISTER - Annual Colloquium on Cyber Security Awareness:

October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month and the theme this year is Own it, Protect it, Secure it. We cannot Secure IT or Protect IT without a workforce that is cyber aware.

Join us as we observe Cyber Security Awareness Month by discussing how we build the workforce, fill the pipeline, and enhance Cyber Security Awareness in our organizations. We welcome our keynote speaker, panelists and attendees who will share their knowledge about the workforce challenges facing us.

October 11, 2019
Marquette University
Alumni Memorial Union
8:30 AM - 1:00 PM


8:30 AM -9:15 AM Arrival, Register, Network

9:15 AM - 9:30 AM Welcome by Dr. Heather Hathaway, Dean Klingler College of Arts and Sciences

9:30 AM - 10:30 AM Keynote by Dr. Blair Taylor, Towson University and Subject Matter Expert on strategies to increase the cybersecurity pipeline, speaking on Cyber Security Education for All

10:30 AM - 11:00 AM Break

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM Panel National, State and Local Workforce Development Initiatives

    • Dr. Blair Taylor, National programs to increase the cybersecurity pipeline
    • Mr. David Cagigal, CIO State of Wisconsin, Cyber Seek initiatives
    • Mr. Byron Franz, Private Sector Coordinator, FBI
    • Mr. Daniel Eliot, Director Education & Strategic Initiatives, National Cybersecurity Alliance

12:00 PM -1:00 PM Lightning talks on Cyber Security Awareness efforts by advisory companies and attendees, Kohls, Fiserv, JCI, Rockwell Automation, MU, Northwestern Mutual, National Labs, AON, State of WI, Milliman, American Astronautics, others.

1:00 PM Dismissal

Keynote speaker Dr. Blair Taylor is an award-winning educator with 20+ years’ experience in academia. She is a national expert in cybersecurity education and curriculum development. She is a faculty member in the Department of Computer and Information Sciences at Towson University, where she has led numerous funded projects. Her work includes Security Injections @ Towson, which provides security modules for integrating security across the curriculum; it is a national model for teaching secure coding to introductory programming students, and SPLASH, which offers Secure Programming Logic for college credit to high school girls.

Dr. Taylor also works as a contractor with NSA’s College of Cyber as a Subject Matter Expert on long-term strategies to increase the pipeline of qualified students and build the nations’ cyber workforce. The NSA programs include the National Cybersecurity Curriculum Program and the Cyber Cube.

Dr. Taylor has received the University System of Maryland Regents Award for Teaching, the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics Outstanding Faculty Award and the Business Outreach Award. She has been recognized as one of 5O Women to Watch by the Baltimore Sun Magazine and one of Maryland’s top female tech leaders by MDBIZNews. She holds a B.A. in Mathematical Science and an M.S. in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins University and a doctorate in Applied Information Technology from Towson University.

We would like to thank ULINE for their support of the Marquette University Department of Computer Science and the Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense. Through their support, this program is made possible.

Ethics of Big Data

The annual Symposium on the Ethics of Big Data brings together business and academic leaders interested in examining the implications of bias in analysis, privacy issues in collecting data, and unintended consequences of decision support analysis. The fourth annual symposium was scheduled to coincide with Data Privacy Day, an international observance of the importance of being the custodians of privacy. A snow storm forced delay of the event. It was held May 1, 2019.

This year's event was organized by the keynote presenter, Dr. Michael Zimmer, an internationally recognized leader in the investigation of data privacy.

'We clearly have entered the era of big data. Armed with petabytes of transaction data, clickstreams and cookie logs, as well as data from social networks, mobile phones, and the "internet of things," a wide range of economic interests, including marketing, health care, manufacturing, education, and government, are now in pursuit of the value of data-driven decision-making. Alongside this increased thirst for big data is an increased public weariness of constant monitoring by internet providers, smart speakers, and GPS chips. Weekly news stories of data breaches, the limitations of data anonymization, and creepy secondary uses of data only add to the public’s anxiety over big data.

The event focused on the privacy implications of big data across a range of contexts, including learning analytics, researcher data practices, and big data research ethics.

This year's symposium had endorsement by the Northwestern Mutual Data Science Institute and will be held on May 1, 2019 at the new Cream City Labs, home to the institute

Presenters for the event:

Keynote Speaker, Michael Zimmer, an Associate Professor in the School of Information Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Zimmer has served as Director of the Center for Information Policy Research since 2012. He is a privacy and internet ethics scholar, whose work focuses on digital privacy, the ethical dimensions of social media & internet technologies, libraries & privacy, and internet research ethics.

Dr. Zimmer has published in numerous international academic journals and books, and has delivered talks across North America, Europe, and Asia. He has written for Wired, The Washington Post, and The Huffington Post, and has been a guest on National Public Radio‘s All Things Considered, Morning Edition, Science Friday, and Here & Now news programs. Zimmer has appeared in news articles for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, the Associated Press, The Atlantic, The Chronicle of Higher Education,,, GQ Magazine, and various other national and local media outlets. His research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Institute of Museum and Library Services, and the American Library Association.

Michael Zimmer at the Event

Kyle M. L. Jones an assistant professor in the School of Informatics and Computing within its Department of Library and Information Science at Indiana University-Indianapolis (IUPUI). He studies information ethics and policy issues associated with educational data mining (e.g., learning analytics) and infrastructures. His work has been published by College & Research Libraries, The Information Society, and Learning, Media and Technology, among other journals. In addition to other projects on learning analytics, Kyle is the PI for the IMLS-funded Data Doubles project, which is investigating student perspectives of their privacy in relation to educational data mining and analytic practices.

Kristin Briney the Data Services Librarian at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she advises researchers on data best practices, conducts regular data workshops, and consults on data management plans. She has a PhD in chemistry and a master’s degree in library and information studies. Kristin is an advocate for better data management and promotes best practices through her book, “Data Management for Researchers,” and in her own research on data policy and data management in academic learning analytics.

Joseph Coelho, a graduate student in the Computational Sciences PhD program at Marquette University. He was a founding member of the planning committee and the catalyst for the first Symposium on the Ethics of Big Data. His research involves a study of the ethical issues involved in collecting data and bias in algorithmic decisions.

Shion Guha an assistant professor in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science at Marquette University. He received a PhD from Cornell University and a MS from the Indian Statistical Institute. His current research interests cut across human computer interaction, computational social science, and privacy.

May 1,, 2019

8:00 A.M - 12:30 P.M.
Hosted by Northwestern Mutual
at the Cream City Labs

733 North Van Buren Street, Milwaukee, WI



The mission of the Marquette University Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense includes providing cybersecurity knowledge to the community and the university. To inform the community and the university about current cyber risks and defenses on April 20, we hosted the 2nd annual CYBER RISK, TRENDS, PREDICTIONS. This event, created at the suggestion of our advisory council, presented insights from cybersecurity experts who are leading the efforts inside several premier cybersecurity organizations. The event was designed to equip cybersecurity leadership with knowledge of cyber trends and prediction to help them protect, detect, and respond to threats in their organizations.

The presenters and panelists included the following:

Annie O'Leary, AON – Annie is an Assistant VP in Aon’s Cyber Solutions Group part of the E&O/Cyber broking team. She works with organizations assessing Errors & Omissions, Network Security and Privacy, and Media risks and creating risk transfer solutions. Her responsibilities include coverage analysis, client education, risk assessment, market relationship management and policy negotiation.

Bilal Malik, Stroz Friedberg – As a Senior Consultant, Bilal Malik performs incident response investigations involving cyber espionage APT actors, PCI, and HIPAA data breaches. He conducts threat hunting and delivers services in operating and optimizing security operations centers using available threat intel to improve overall defense. He also assists regional FBI offices investigating organized cybercrime.

Che Bhatia, Stroz Friedberg – Che Bhatia is a VP in the Resilience practice where he helps clients manage cyber risk. He has over 18 years of experience in IT, cybersecurity and risk management delivering results in regulated industries such as investment banking, insurance/reinsurance and HR. He often speaks at industry events and moderates panel discussions with leaders in security. He is also a member-at-large on the cybersecurity education advisory board for Washington University.

Jason Madey, Carbon Black - Jason Madey is a core member of Carbon Black’s Cybersecurity Strategist “Howlers” team. In the three years, that Jason has been with Carbon Black, he has leveraged his accomplished information technology background to help businesses secure their computing environment. Jason’s approach to cyber security is unique, in that he applies the best business practices that have made industries successful and maps that to a company’s individual security ecosystem. Jason views and architects “outside the box” solutions for the challenge that is cyber security.

The event included three timely presentations

  • Josh Yost, System Engineering Manager Palo Alto Networks: Security Posture for the Age of Everything
  • Jason Madey, Chief Cyber Security Officer Carbon Black: Incident Response and Threats
  • Che Bhatia, VP Cyber Resiliency and Bilal Malik, Stroz Friedberg: Incident Response, Best Practices

We concluded with a panel that was led by audience questions indicating the level of interest of the attendees in finding our what these experts had to say.

Following the meeting the panelists and presenters met with the advisory council over lunch to network and learn more about risks, trends, and predictions.

A Unique Challenge

Want to play for a rewarding prize?

The prize is an exciting career that you may not have considered and finding out more about your abilities.

The State of Wisconsin is engaged in a unique talent search that hopes to turn over the rocks and reveal hidden talent-talent that can be converted into a rewarding career. The emergence of the digital economy and cyber threats has led to a never-before-seen gap in cyber professionals to analyze threats, discover dangerous action, and thwart adversaries. The raw talent can be hidden inside students in disciplines as far from technology as the social sciences and the humanities. 

Wisconsin officials concerned about the cyber resource gap have begun a quest looking for raw talent. The resource gap is driving a process that begins with identifying talent and then offering internships that include valuable education on the knowledge and skills for a career. There are 16 internships already identified and the number is growing as companies sign on to this unique program.

Are you curious about what might be a hidden talent in you?

Wisconsin’s is joining a several other states in the pursuit of a talent pool using proven assessment tools developed through years of research by the SANS Institute. The adventure begins with an online game called Cyber Start. The best contestants will advance to a second round with the prize being internships. You missed the opportunity to talk to representatives of state government and local companies: but you can still investigate the possibilities.

Go to look for the explanation of Cyber Start and the instructions on how to get involved. This opportunity will last through sometime in mid-January. About 100 par tic pants in the first round will be invited to take on a more extensive round of games and challenges to compete fro the internships offered by the state government and local companies.


Colloquium on Cyber Security Awareness

Friday, October 19, 2018
8:00 AM - 12:00 PM

National Cyber Security Awareness Month

October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month. With the assistance of partners, the Marquette University Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense is hosting a Colloquium to share knowledge about effective measures to increase cyber security awareness. Our program will span efforts in commercial organizations and K12 institutions.

Learn how to shore up your defenses – It’s Everyone’s Job

The theme for the third week of National Cyber Security Month is “It’s everyone’s job to ensure online safety at work.” All workers need to understand threats and defenses. But not all workers need the same knowledge, skills and abilities. This is not just about general guidelines on passwords and software updates. Engineers need to design secure systems, financial workers need to secure sensitive information, and IT managers need to a service desk that can detect and respond to cyber-attacks. What can we do to bolster the organization’s awareness and how do we know if it is working?

This half-day program will have three components:

Security experts – Avoiding unforeseen threats

• Chetan Bhatia, Vice President within Stroz Friedberg’s Cyber Resilience practice
• Maximillian Thauer, Senior consultant, Stroz Friedberg’s Cyber Resilience practice
• Thys DeBruyn, Principal Consultant and President of ADVANCE Resources and Consulting

K-12 Report – What are we doing to promote security and careers

• Dr. Debbie Perouli, Assistant Professor and GenCyber Lead Instructor, Marquette University
• Nathan Mielke, Director of Technology, Marquette University High School

Industry Panel – Measures and Measurements

• Kevin Anderson, VP, Information Security Program Manager, Associated Bank
• Brian Keery, Product Strategy Manager, American Astronautics
• William Caraher, CIO, von Briesen & Roper, S.C.
• Ed Ernster, Lead Process & Controls Analyst, Thomson Reuters

We are proud to announce that


has been designated a
Center of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defense Education

By the Department of Homeland Security and the National Security Agency
for the curriculum path
MS in Computing with a specialization in Information Assurance and Cyber Defense



GenCyber CAMP

GenCyber responds to a recognized need to develop cybersecurity awareness and teach sound cybersecurity fundamentals at the K-12 levels. The program achieves this by providing grants to universities, public or private schools or schools systems, not-for-profit institutions, or non-profit institutions to conduct in-residence or commuter learning events for students; and providing instruction, instructional materials, and effective teaching methods to middle and high school teachers.

We are thrilled to have hosted a GenCyber camp at Marquette.

It was a combination camp for teachers and students.

The dates of our camp were July 30-August 3. It was held in Cudahy Hall home to computer science and cyber security.



The emerging world of big data brings with it ethical, social and legal issues. To help answer the need to discuss these issues, we sponsored Marquette University’s third annual Ethics of Big Data Symposium.

Friday, April 27, 2018
8 AM - 12 PM
Northwestern Mutual
800 E Wisconsin Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53202



As part of our mission to provide cybersecurity knowledge to the university and the community we hosted a special event to enhance security awareness. Experts with broad consulting experience shared their insights regarding cyber risks, trends that they have observed, and predictions for 2018. For details about this event see CYBER RISKS, TRENDS, PREDICTIONS.

Friday, April 13, 2018
8:00 AM - 11:00 AM
Marquette University
Raynor Conference Center
1335 W. Wisconsin Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53233


In the NEWS

Over the past several months, cyber security incidents and scams have caught the attention of local media outlets. Faculty from the center have provided expert opinion about these incidents and advice about defenses to the public with the help of the media. Here is a collection of our contributions:

Colloquium on Cyber Security Awareness

The Marquette University Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction and the Waukesha County Technical College is contributing to National Cyber Security Awareness Month by sponsoring a Colloquium on Cyber Security Awareness. The event was held on October 20, 2017 on the Marquette Campus.

Promoting awareness is an educational activity. We need to share our knowledge about enhancing awareness about cyber security threats and defenses. On October 20th, national leaders in cyber security awareness efforts will share their knowledge and experiences. We will convene as a group to share our knowledge about effective activities to understand risk, avoid problems, prepare for incidents, and respond to issues. The colloquium is divided into two halves. In the morning we will address the need for awareness in K-12 programs. In the afternoon we will look at programs that corporations can use to increase awareness of threats and defenses.

Our two themes:

  1. The workforce pipeline starts in K-12 education. You will learn about and share activities in the K-12 environment to increase awareness, advocate for career opportunities, and prepare students for further study.
  2. Effective employee training and awareness of risks. We will examine and discuss aspects of employee training for cyber security awareness and its effectiveness and explore what companies can do to be more aware of risks.

Friday, OCTOBER 20, 2017
Marquette University Alumni Memorial Union
1442 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53233
8:00 AM to 4:00 PM



Blockchain conference

Discussions about Blockchain are popping up everywhere. But what is it and what should we be doing about it? The Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense is helping plan and promote a special meeting about this technology on the Marquette Campus. The activity is being led by the College of Business Administration.

Milwaukee Blockchain Conference
Thursday November 9, 2017
8:00 AM – 12:00 PM CST
Weasler Auditorium

Registration in open.


As National Cyber Security Awareness Month approaches it is good to remind yourself of smart habits with respect to cyber security.

STOP.THINK.CONNECT about cyber security

Keep a Clean Machine. Keep your software current, enable automated security updates. Protect all your devices (smartphone, routers, gaming systems, laptops, etc.). Scan USBs and other memory devices you plug into your digital devices. Marquette and other universities supply antivirus software. Get it and use it.

Protect Your Personal Information. Be careful with your logins. Use unique passwords and account names for all high priority accounts. Keep a secure list of IDs and passwords someplace away from your devices. Know and use the privacy options that you have available to you on social media sites that you use.

Connect With Care. Throw out what you do not need to avoid inadvertent clicking on a malicious email, tweet, post or advertisement. Be careful with using WI-FI hotspots. Be especially careful using any banking applications, and always look for “HTTPS://” to be sure your communication is safe through encryption.

Be Web Wise. Keep aware of new technology and scams. Think before you answer a communication that might be spoofed. Did that message really come from your department, your school, that bank, your friend? Fraudsters are getting incredibly good a spoofing. Hover your mouse over addresses to make sure a communication is really going to whom you think it is. Back up your important data and store it safely where ransomware can’t lock you out.

Be a Good Online Citizen. Remember that safer for you is safer for all. Don’t be the source of someone else’s problem. Report incidents that you become aware of. Be protective of others when you post items in social media.

Many of these ideas come from the National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA). Visit the NCSA active website and consider signing up to receive updates.


New Safety Concerns on Social Media (July 10,2017)

Teens keep track of their friends on Snapchat but a new feature Snap Map is causing concerns, It reveals the location of users and their friends on a detailed map. In commenting on this feature to Fox New 6 in Milwaukee, Marquette Ass it ant Professor Debbie Perouli commented, "Your friends, or your local network, didn't used to know all this detail. When you are installing an app, it is always wise to check what kind of things do they need to have access to."

The bottom line is that privacy is a concern. As users of social media we need to understand the privacy agreements and app settings.


Insights into Cyber Security (June, 2017)

There was substantial news chatter in June 2017 about cyber incidents. Important threads in the conversation were discussions of the 2016 elections and outbreaks of what appeared to be ransomware. Faculty at Marquette who are active in the Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense were called upon to supply their expert opinion about these events.

Dr. Kaczmarek was interviewed by Wisconsin Public Radio to talk about the story that "Russian Cyber Attackers May Have Hacked Election Systems In 39 States." The secrecy that is wrapped around investigations of this type of incident prohibits the sharing of technical details of how the systems were attacked and in some cases breached. With more than 7,000 independent polling organizations, a total shutdown of the system is unlikely. However, the lack of commonality in the election systems and the absence of an authorized central control make the task of protection more complex.

The warning that emerges from the knowledge of the incidents in 39 states is clear. Some parties, likely sponsored by foreign governments, are willing to attach our election systems. We need to continue efforts in cyber security awareness and cyber defense to protect the election process, our infrastructure, our businesses, and all of our information. Of course that is the mission of this center.

In a second interview with Wisconsin Public Radio, Dr. Perouli provided insights into the story of 'How "Petya" Attacked Computer Systems In Europe.' This attack was initially reported as a variant of Petya. However, cyber investigations suggest a different motivation. Some experts have concluded this was not ransomware. Forensics following the attack indicate that the malware disguised itself as ransomware. Flaws involving the email address used in the attack and the bitcoin account indicate this was not ransomware. Ukraine was particularly hard hit by this cyber weapon suggesting political motivation. Continuing analysis is expected to provide more evidence about the likely perpetrator.

In this interview, the commentator asked about the rise of cyber incidents. Dr. Perouli provided three contributing factors. First, the rise of anonymous payment systems allow attackers to hide their identity. Second, "cyber crime kits," which reduce the need for expertise, are available to novice hackers. Third, awareness of safe practices is not not pervasive. We need to increase cyber security knowledge and awareness and build strong defenses.

Ethics of Big Data II (April, 2017)

Because of issues with privacy, security and risk to reputation, we sponsored a symposium on the Ethics of Big Data. This event focused on medical data and issues with collecting, securing and analyzing it. .

Katherine Rickus, a faculty member in the Philosophy Department at Marquette, who holds degrees in Psychology, Medicine, and Philosophy introduced the day with a thoughtful explanation of the issues facing the attendees, Ryan Spellecy, a faculty member in Bioethics and Medical Humanities in the Center for Bioethics and Medical Humanities, in the Institute for Health and Society at the Medical College of Wisconsin, explained the current and future state for collecting medical records and preventing accidental disclosure of information. He explained various methods for achieving consent for sharing medical information for research. Samuel Volchenboum, who is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Associate Chief Research Informatics Officer, Director, Center for Research Informatics, and Associate Director, Institute for Translational Medicine at the University of Chicago Medicine, related ethical issues arising from his own practice and the genetic and genomic results rapidly becoming available. Michael Zimmer, the Director, Center for Information Policy Research in the School of Information Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, addressed the need for a ethical approach that includes recognition of contextual integrity.

An exercise for the attendees drew lively discussion and thoughtful conclusions. The attendees were divided into nine groups. Each group was tasked with discussing and presenting the ethical concerns arising in nine different cases drawn from the news.

The morning concluded with a panel discussion. The panel included business interests, representatives from the legal community, and academics. The panelists focused on the importance of ethics as various organizations begin to employ big data.

Nonprofit Center of Milwaukee Workshop/Training (April, 2017)

Security issues can cause extensive inconvenience, damage to reputation and worse. Cyber attackers don't care who they target. To help Milwaukee area nonprofit organizations we presented a workshop at the Nonprofit Center of Milwaukee on April 4. 2017.

We presented this in the context that a small Milwaukee nonprofit ($1.5 Million) was recently an intended victim of a wire transfer scam that came through e-mail phishing. Small or large any organization can be a target. Could a nonprofit afford to pay a ransom or send money to a cyber criminal? Can anyone go on unprepared? Do organizations know the risks? Are they ready to react to a problem?

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has provided an easy to understand framework that any organization including nonprofits can apply to help understand what it takes to protect the organization. This approach to prepare for an attack has been adopted by companies and government agencies of all sizes. In this workshop we introduced participants to the NIST Cybersecurity Framework to start them on the process of developing a cybersecurity plan. We also introduced them to the principle of, "If you collect it; you need to protect it," and provided suggestions for simple steps to take such as training of staff and encryption of data.

The Workshop was led off by Thomas Kaczmarek, Director of Graduate Studies for MS in Computing, and Director of Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense. He was assisted by four graduate students in our specialization for Information Assurance and Cyber Defense and Mr. David Kliemann, VP, Cyber Threat Management, Fiserv and adjunct faculty in the the MS in Computing program. This was a great experience for the students who played a key role in the workshop by presenting materials and helping participants work on spreadsheets for the various functions found in the framework.

Data Privacy Day (January, 2017)

Respecting privacy, safeguarding data and enabling trust are the themes of Data Privacy Day which is celebrated internationally on January 28 each year. The Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense and the student cyber security organization together sponsored a presentation on data privacy issues on January 30.Data Privacy Day


Stay Safe Shopping Online (December 2016)

As the holiday shopping season arrived in December, the Center for Cyber Security Awareness and Cyber Defense and the student cyber security organization sponsored a campus wide meeting to discuss cyber security threats and defenses. With a recognition that more consumers now choose the convenience of online shopping and cyber criminals are looking to take advantage of the increased use of online shopping, awareness of threats and defenses has growing importance.


National Cyber Security Awareness Month (October 2016)

October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month. Marquette University worked with the Waukesha County Technical College to sponsor a Cyber Security Summit on the WCTC campus on October 28 2016. This event featured parallel tracks that included presentations about cyber security technology and discussions of measures to enhance cyber security awareness.


Coalition for Wisconsin Aviation/Aeronautics Center of Excellence (September, 2016)

It is a little-known fact that Wisconsin is a major player in the aerospace and aeronautics manufacturing industry. Marquette University is participating in a coalition studying the feasibility of a southeast Wisconsin center for aerospace/aeronautics development and testing that would feature security testing, the first of its kind in the nation. This effort is coordinated in part by the Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation and involves local industry and academia.


Information Security Policy

Marquette has published an Information Security Policy, as well as a policy related to security for Cell Phones and Mobile Devices, Encryption, Network Disruption/Computer Quarantine, and Passwords.

Awareness about security threats and counter measures on campus is led by Information Technology Services. They offer do's and don'ts to faculty and staff in an effort to promote Cyber Security Awareness and Safe Computing.


Ethics of Big Data

In April 2016, a symposium on the ethics of big data was sponsored by the Helen Way Klingler College of Arts and Sciences. Privacy and security issues loom large in the discussion of ethics.