As a Catholic, Jesuit university, we at Marquette are proud to support Dreamers and those from mixed status families and communities. This page provides guidance for how campus leaders, faculty, staff, and students can show their support through compassionate and inclusive language.
“Undocumented” or “unauthorized” refers to students who are not U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the United States, who do not hold a visa to reside in the U.S., and who have not applied for legal residency in the U.S. These individuals are not “illegal.” The term “illegal immigrant” eschews one of our most fundamental and cherished legal principles of innocent until proven guilty in a court of law. Moreover, about half of all undocumented people entered the country legally and overstayed their visas, and their presence in the United States while being out of status is not a criminal violation of the law.
Not only is the term “illegal” inaccurate, it is dehumanizing. As Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor and Nobel Peace Prize winner, famously stated, “No human being is illegal. That is a contradiction in terms.” Grounded in Catholic social teaching, we are called to uphold the inherent dignity of every person and we encourage our campus community to avoid using language that strips others of their humanity. When referring to an individual who is residing in the United Stated without authorization from the federal government, we would encourage you to drop the “i-word” in favor of terms such as “undocumented” or “unauthorized” immigrant.
Undocumented youth are also often referred to as “Dreamers”. This moniker came out of the DREAM Act movement. The Development Relief and Education of Alien Minors Act is proposed legislation first introduced in 2001. It recognizes that people brought to the U.S. by their families at a young age should not be penalized for the rest of their lives, or relegated to a permanent underclass of American society without access to higher education. There were many iterations of the bill, but all of them would give temporary legal status with a 6-year pathway to permanent legal residency to young undocumented immigrants, as long as the individuals were brought to the United States at a young age, were attending or attended college or served in the military, and passed criminal background checks and reviews. Between both chambers of Congress, different versions of the DREAM Act were re-introduced multiple times over the course of ten years, but despite bipartisan support, it never passed. It has been estimated that about 2 million young people would have been eligible for the DREAM Act. The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, of which Marquette University is a member, continues to support those students who would benefit from passage of the DREAM Act.
"DACA" is an acronym that stands for "Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals", an executive order signed by President Obama in 2012. DACA was an exercise of the administration's prosecutorial discretion, which means determining who is (and who is not) a priority for enforcement of immigration law. DACA delays deportation for the young people who would have benefitted from the DREAM Act, as long as they were brought to the U.S. at a young age, are in or have graduated from high school, and do not pose a threat to national security or public safety. After submitting an application and paying a fee, eligible immigrants receive a two-year, renewable deferral of deportation along with work authorization. DACA does not provide legal status.
DACA had immediate and tangible effects for the approximately 800,000 people who received it. In addition to the reprieve from deportation, DACA provides a temporary permit that allows them to work legally in the United States. As a result, many "DACAmented" immigrants have seen economic and educational gains, as well as positive impacts on their mental health.
A study by the National Bureau of Economic Research found that the implementation of DACA reduced teen pregnancy rates for this population by 45 percent and increased their rate of college enrollment by 25 percent. Implementation of the program also led to a 15 percent increase in high school graduation rates for undocumented young people overall. DACA also appears to have increased the likelihood of these individuals joining the labor market, as those who pursued more education were more likely to be employed, as well.
It’s important to note that DACA is not just for young students – many DACA recipients are parents as well. There are at least 200,000 US-born children whose parents have DACA. So the positive effects extend to these children and other family members, as well.
The Immigrant Legal Resource Center provides updates and resources for DACA applications and renewals.
Current Marquette students who are experiencing financial barriers to applying for or renewing their DACA permits should reach out to Jacki Black at firstname.lastname@example.org to be connected to resources.
Many people also live in households that are considered “mixed status”. A mixed status family is one in which at least one member is residing legally in the United States and at least one member is not. Often, this includes children born in the United States to unauthorized immigrant parents. Children who live through the deportation of a parent, as well as children living in constant fear of the detention or deportation of a loved one, experience pervasive stress that can result in negative mental and physical health outcomes. It is estimated that there are more than 22 million people living in mixed status households in the United States.